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STPM BIOLOGY Transport

STPM BIOLOGY Transport

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Published by wkwhui

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Published by: wkwhui on May 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/13/2014

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Transport –The purpose of a circulatory system is to provide rapid mass flow of materialsfrom the one part of the body to another over distances where diffusion would beslow. –The circulatory system consists o1.The heart2.Arteries and arterioles
3.
Veins and venule4.Capillaries
 – 
The circulatory system can be divided into two circulation: systemic circulationand pulmonary circulation. –Systemic circulation: –Pulmonary circulation:
 
Artery
 – 
Consists of three layers: tunica adventitia (outer coat), tunica media (smoothmuscle), tunica intima (endothelium). –Thick outer layer of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers (connective tissue) toavoid bulges and leaks. –Thick tunica media to withstand the high pressure.
 – 
Thick tunica intima to help pump the blood on after each heartbeat. –Narrow lumen to help maintain high pressures. –Function: transports oxygenated blood away from the heart. Can constrict and hasno valve. Blood moves under high pressure.Vein
 – 
Consists of three layers: tunica adventitia (outer coat), tunica media (smoothmuscle), tunica intima (endothelium).
 – 
Thin layers of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers because there is little danger of bursting. –Thin tunica media because blood does not flow in pulses so the veins wall cannothelp pump it. –Wide lumen is needed to accommodate the slow-moving blood. –Function: transport deoxygenated blood to the heart. Cannot constrict and hasvalves to prevent the backflow of blood that moves in low pressure.
 
Capillary One cell thick. –Very narrow lumen so that capillaries fit into small spaces. –Pores between cells in the wall allow some of the plasma to leak out and formtissue fluid. Phagocytes can also squeeze out.
 – 
Function: connects arteriole to venule and contains oxygenated at the arteriole anddeoxygenated blood at the venule end. Provides large surface area for rapidgaseous exchange between blood and body cells. Can constrict and contains novalves. Blood moves under very low pressure.Structure of human heart

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