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Arabic Grammar

Arabic Grammar

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Published by Dr. Zahir Ali

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Published by: Dr. Zahir Ali on May 16, 2010
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18 Arabic Grammar 
18
                  
APPENDIX B: A BRIEF JOURNEYTHROUGH ARABIC GRAMMAR 
You will cover the basics of the following topics in this Part.1. Subject and Predicate………………………… 192. Masculine and Feminine Genders…………… 203. Numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural……224. Adjective and its Noun………………………… 235. The Possessive Case or Genitive………………246. Interrogatives ………………………… ……… 26 7. Pronouns………………………………………… 26 8. The Prepositions…………………………………299. Subject, Verb, and Object………………………3010. The Tense…………………………………………3110a. Past Tense ………………………………… 3110b. Imperfect Tense ……………………… 3410c. Imperative and Negative Imperative…… 37 10d. Derived Forms of the verb ……………… 42
 
19 Arabic Grammar
19
1. Subject and Predicate
  Â ¦ » 
Â¦ 
 ¾ ¬ ¦ ÷ 
 
Allah is creator.Muhammad (peace be upon him, pbuh) is prophet.Tariq is
 Mujahid 
(one who struggles)The sentences like these are composed of a subject and a predicate which are called
¦
¾¬¦÷
and
Â¦»
in Arabic. To translate such sentences into Arabic, just put Tanveen (
Æ
) on each of thesewords (in case they are singular masculine). Tanveen (
Æ
) is also known as double
 pesh
ordouble dhammah.Allah is creator.
êó¢»
É
Ȧ
Muhammad (pbuh) is Prophet.

 
¦û

¾ø¸÷
Tariq is a
 Mujahid 
.

¾ÿ¢´÷
Ƽʰ
¢×
************************ Vocabulary for Lesson No. 1 ************************
creator
êó¢»
prophet
 
¦û
one who
¾ÿ¢´÷
struggleshouse
ª
 
¥
big
Z¦ï 
mg.
slave
¾¦ß
pious
¶ó¢Ï
truthful
Ƽʮ
¢Ï
religion
ú 
 
Ê®
one
¾·
¦ÈÂ
scholar
öó¢ß
======================= Exercises for Lesson No. 1 =======================
Using the words and their meanings given above, translate the following sentences into English.The translation is also provided to help you check your answers.The house is big.
Z¦ï 
ª
 
¦ó
Ȧ
 The slave is pious.
¶ó¢Ï
¾¦àó
¦
The Muslim is truthful.
Ƽʮ
¢Ï
öôÈøó
Ȧ
Islam is a religion.
ú 
 
Ê®É¿
¢ôÇ¢ó
Ȧ
Allah is one.
¾·
¦ÈÂÉ
Ȧ
 Javeed is a scholar
öó¢ß
¾ 
 
ÊÂ
¢³
 
 
20 Arabic Grammar
20
 2. Masculine and Feminine Genders
® û   ÷ 
È   Â
 ÂM  ï  À÷ 
You must have heard the Arabic names, for e.g.,
ò 
 
ø³
for a boy and
¨ô 
 
ø³
for a girl. Therelies the rule. Just put
¨
at the end of a masculine (singular) word to make it feminine (singular).For example,
¨
 
ï 
ȯ
 
ï 
ȯ
¨¸ó¢Ï
 
¶ó¢Ï
ƨ
¾Ë
¦È°
¾Ë
¦È°
 
¨ü÷÷
ú÷÷
ƨ
¾¥¢ß
¾¥¢ß
¨
¾ó¢»
¾ó¢»
 Notes:
1. Arabic has two genders, i.e., masculine gender and feminine gender. There is no commongender in Arabic.2. A common sign of a feminine word is
¨
(in general) as the last letter of the word.3. To make a specific reference, we put
̾Ȧ
in front of a common noun in Arabic just as we put"the" in front of a common noun in English. When
̾Ȧ
is attached to an Arabic word, weremove one of 
É
(dhamma or pesh) from the two
Æ
(Tanveen or double pesh). Forexample,
ɾ
 
ÇÂó
Ȧƾ
 
Ç
È° ÉÀ
¢Èû¢ó
ȦÆÀ
¢Èû
ʦ
¾ø¸ó
Ȧ
¾ø·
4. Occasionally, the prefix
̾Ȧ
is used to imply generality also. For e.g.,
À
¢Èû¢ó
Ȧ
(the humanbeing).5. If the
¦
¾ 
º 
¬¦÷
(subject) is feminine, then its
Â¦ 
º 
»
(predicate) will also be feminine.For example,

¶ó¢Ï
ɧ
¢ó
Ȧ
¨¸ó¢Ï
N
¿
¢ó
Ȧ
 Additional rules for making feminine gender of dual and plural nouns are given in the followinglesson.

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