Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
12Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND SELF-ESTEEM IN ADOLESCENCE

COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND SELF-ESTEEM IN ADOLESCENCE

Ratings: (0)|Views: 700|Likes:
Published by Marinela
Abstract
In adolescence, self-esteem is an important milestone in personality development. This psychological dimension implies a positive affective tone on several factors, such as self appreciation, feeling good about yourself as a positive self-perception.
An important role in forming a positive self-esteem is hold by the cognitive processes, ideal-ego, external expectations, cognitive maturation adventure, plus a good capacity for self-evaluation. Thinking-schemes acquired in these years will lead to further positive profile of the young and will contribute largely to his subsequent success.
Yet, we can not ignore the fact that the major determinants of self-esteem include both successes and failures of past, hopes and aspirations of family and social group that individual belongs, and certain characteristic traits of his personality.
However, many times, the positive self-esteem in adolescence is affected by some errors in the educational relationship between teachers-teenagers or parents-adolescents. This paper proposes, not only to define the involvement of positive thinking in a positive self-esteem training, but also gives a description of the factors that induce negative self-esteem in adolescence, such as unrealistic standards, incorrect assessments or self-explanatory style.

Abstract
In adolescence, self-esteem is an important milestone in personality development. This psychological dimension implies a positive affective tone on several factors, such as self appreciation, feeling good about yourself as a positive self-perception.
An important role in forming a positive self-esteem is hold by the cognitive processes, ideal-ego, external expectations, cognitive maturation adventure, plus a good capacity for self-evaluation. Thinking-schemes acquired in these years will lead to further positive profile of the young and will contribute largely to his subsequent success.
Yet, we can not ignore the fact that the major determinants of self-esteem include both successes and failures of past, hopes and aspirations of family and social group that individual belongs, and certain characteristic traits of his personality.
However, many times, the positive self-esteem in adolescence is affected by some errors in the educational relationship between teachers-teenagers or parents-adolescents. This paper proposes, not only to define the involvement of positive thinking in a positive self-esteem training, but also gives a description of the factors that induce negative self-esteem in adolescence, such as unrealistic standards, incorrect assessments or self-explanatory style.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Marinela on May 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/19/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Conferinta Gandirea pozitiva - aplicatii si implicatii in stiintele educatiei,27 - 29 mai 2010, Oradea.
PROCESELE COGNITIVE I STIMA DE SINE
Ș
ÎN ADOLESCENĂ
Ț
COGNITIVE PROCESSESAND SELF-ESTEEM IN ADOLESCENCE
 Dr. Marinela Rusu Academia Română, Institutul de Cercetări Economice i Sociale
ș
 ”Gh. Zane ", Iaşi
  Abstract 
In adolescence,
 self-esteem
is an important milestone in personality development. This psychological dimension implies a positive affective tone on several factors, such as
 self appreciation
,
 feeling good about yourself 
as a
 positive self-perception
.An important role in forming a
 positive self-esteem
is hold by the
cognitive processes,ideal-ego, external expectations, cognitive maturation adventure
, plus
a good capacity for self-evaluation
. Thinking-schemes acquired in these years will lead to further positive profile of theyoung and will contribute largely to his subsequent success.Yet, we can not ignore the fact that the major determinants of self-esteem include both
 successes
and
 failures of past 
,
hopes
and
aspirations
of family and social group that individual belongs, and certain characteristic traits of his personality.However, many times, the positive self-esteem in adolescence is affected by some errorsin the educational relationship between teachers-teenagers or parents-adolescents. This paper  proposes, not only to define the involvement of positive thinking in a positive self-esteemtraining, but also gives a description of the factors that induce
negative self-esteem
inadolescence, such as
unrealistic standards, incorrect assessments
or 
 self-explanatory style.
For adolescence age,
 positive self-esteem
is an important milestone in personalitydevelopment. This psychological dimension implies a positive affective tone on several factors,such as:
 self esteem, feeling good about yourself 
and
 positive self-perception
. For Freudenberger H. and A. Overby (1969) and Escalona (1968), the major determinants of self-esteem include both successes and failures, hopes and aspirations of family and of the social group thatindividual belongs, and some characteristic features of his personality. Self esteem reflects thenature of its inner imaging with its expression of approach or departure from the child's feelings
1
 
of omnipotence and affiliation analyzed by Freud. It is the core identity of someone, although itmay be fragile as a cake of ice, a flake ready to take flight at the slightest cold blow.For Freud, ego development assumes an
ego-body
emerged from the gender-specificattributes (girl / boy), being a mental representation of their own body. Sullivan (quoted byKestenbaum, 1999), together with other development psychoanalysts and psychologists havenoticed that a child feels happy and a possible sense of security, which Freud (1914) called"infantile omnipotence" or "primary narcissism". Essential for further development of a sense of competence is the support coming from the environment - that parent "good enough", which provides a sense of protection and security (Freudenberger H. and A. Overby 1969).Mothers learn pretty quickly why their babies cry and they know the methods that makethem feel comfortable. Mothers who are attentive to signals of their children help them developfeelings of security and later, of control. If the child matches with his mother expectations, theresult is a harmonious interaction, but if, by chance, the two are on different levels of tension,some turbulence may result. Escalona S. (1968) reminds us that the temperament is inborn andnot the result of environmental influences that shape the overall personality. Mother must adaptitself to the particular style of her child, so the close interactions to be continued, despitedifferences in temperament between the two participants.As Clarice J. Kestenbaum (1998) assessed, children at this age, gets an
unnatural ideal  self 
in relation to the
ideal object 
(mother) in order to reduce tension. Child's real self begins tocrystallize with the differences that will appear later between self image and the objects image inthe outside world. But there are times when self-esteem is adversely affected. We will try out below, to understand the psychological sources of low self-esteem and which could be theconsequences in youth development.We know that a source of positive self-esteem results from
the need to control and acquire,
from
the joy of action
(search, learning, competition, creativity) that are inborn rights of every child. So, the first basic interactions, the concept of self in relationship with others areassociated with mastery and effective solution to external applications and the adoption of models offered by those who took care of the child. One example are those tasks related to thedevelopment of childhood instincts control (bowel and bladder), which if are not acquired intime, may occur early on a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. As Jacobson (1954)describes, there are some effects of inappropriate ties in preschool years. In the absence of human ties, consciousness can not be modeled because children could not form self-observationskills, the sense of self-critical and therefore, no normal self esteem.Some research shows that it can be distinguished two types of groups of children withsuch problems. The first group of children is not connected, does not interact with adults early to provide security and they are found usually, in institutionalized homes or in slums. Many have been abused – experiencing
cumulative trauma
- and were moved from one home to another. Inschool, these children appear clearly as lacking a sense of humor, with reduced intellectualfunction and a lack of self-control behavior. They are children hard to deal with in terms of  psychotherapy, because they cannot form a transfer to the therapist and the prognosis isconsidered poor.A second group of children who exhibit a low self-esteem were still able, over the years,to form weak attachments, although they frequently experienced separation or loss or have hadan inadequate maternal care. These children have not been based on a stable adult, which makesthem defend themselves against the others and other losses, keeping all their emotions as"secret". They appear to be suspicious and ready to defend. These kids are the future peoplewithout substance or high moral values; Clarice J. Kestenbaum (1998) comments about them,that will become abandoned, unwanted in the society and not-connected. Such children have
2
 
varying degrees of depression, feelings of powerlessness, low self esteem and a devalued imageof their body. Bowlby (1966) and Escalona (1968) shows that
low self-esteem is often linked tomaternal depression.
Increasingly becoming an undeniable evidence that the mother's mentalstate, anxiety, depression, lack of self-esteem, affects a certain extent, psychological ascendancyof the child and the future teenager.Self-esteem in school years, again, depends on the degree of fulfillment of specific tasksof that age. The child must be linked to authorities, to master certain cognitive skills, but alsoskills of communication and behavior. Children with learning difficulties, for example, canisolate when they see the differences between them and other children concerning their schoolattainments. The offenses and the irony of colleagues can cause a child to stop communicatingwith others, to become marginalized, filled with guilt or feelings of inferiority and powerlessness.You cannot talk about self-esteem in adolescence, without taking into question the notionof 
ideal-self 
. There are many definitions of this concept. Laufer, for example, believes that the
ideal ego
is a part of 
 superego,
seeking to restore the narcissistic balance. As a teenager, this process derives from two sources: the
 superego
and
external expectations
of contemporaries withwhich the adolescent has been identified. Special attributes of an individual or group "often become a basis according to which contemporaries are judged" (M. Laufer, p. 1998). In other words, teens themselves are judged according to how they think that are perceived by others. If a boy is low height for his age or a girl have no clear signs of femininity the same with theicolleagues, he or she will suffer 
intense feelings of shame or inferiority.
Appearance is always a problem, so, we find adolescents needing to look like clones,with the same kind of hair, jeans, jackets or anything else would choose the young fashion. In part, teens can see themselves in their friends and develop a concept of 
 self 
through the eyes of others. The ideal-ego of 
 young man
often remains one immature, idealized self, a hope that will be fulfilled in the future. The adventure of cognitive maturation, the ability of abstraction and theachievement of elevated awareness can lead to low self esteem, just because an idealized-self istoo far from the self as perceived in the present.John Updike (quoted by Susan Harter, 1988) describes the feelings of shame and culpableself-awareness in his autobiographical account about confrontation in adolescence, with psoriasis: ”Psoriasis makes you think again. Conciliation and self-examination strategies branches out forever. You are pushed to the mirror again and again, psoriasis force you tonarcissism, if we conceive that Narcissus did not like what he saw. Anyone can hate nature thathas generated this disease but also, Nature is the one that will be addressed for healing. Onlynature can forgive psoriasis; the suffering person, in his self-contemplation can not guaranteethat power to others "(p. 40).The same happens, when appearance of adolescents can cause great unhappiness if itdoes not comply with the idealized self or when, the failure to comply with self-imposed performance standards, both, academic and social; this can lead to self-perception problems.Many teenagers simply abandon the fight, when low self-esteem interferes with motivation tosucceed in the academic, sporting or social.
 Low self-esteem
is many times correlated with
devalued self-image
and is one of theoften problems that parents brought to the attention of clinicians, in connection with their adolescents, although self-esteem problems, the depreciate self-image, the exaggerated self-criticism and disproportionate self-evaluation, may appear as features of multiple categories of disease. Among these, we can mention depression, attention disorders, social phobia,
bulimianervosa.
3

Activity (12)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
MindGrace liked this
uro345pa liked this
Maya Balsha liked this
uro345pa liked this
MioHeilig liked this
jdee106 liked this
silviuoana liked this
Kailaskassan liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->