varying degrees of depression, feelings of powerlessness, low self esteem and a devalued imageof their body. Bowlby (1966) and Escalona (1968) shows that
low self-esteem is often linked tomaternal depression.
Increasingly becoming an undeniable evidence that the mother's mentalstate, anxiety, depression, lack of self-esteem, affects a certain extent, psychological ascendancyof the child and the future teenager.Self-esteem in school years, again, depends on the degree of fulfillment of specific tasksof that age. The child must be linked to authorities, to master certain cognitive skills, but alsoskills of communication and behavior. Children with learning difficulties, for example, canisolate when they see the differences between them and other children concerning their schoolattainments. The offenses and the irony of colleagues can cause a child to stop communicatingwith others, to become marginalized, filled with guilt or feelings of inferiority and powerlessness.You cannot talk about self-esteem in adolescence, without taking into question the notionof
. There are many definitions of this concept. Laufer, for example, believes that the
is a part of
seeking to restore the narcissistic balance. As a teenager, this process derives from two sources: the
of contemporaries withwhich the adolescent has been identified. Special attributes of an individual or group "often become a basis according to which contemporaries are judged" (M. Laufer, p. 1998). In other words, teens themselves are judged according to how they think that are perceived by others. If a boy is low height for his age or a girl have no clear signs of femininity the same with their colleagues, he or she will suffer
intense feelings of shame or inferiority.
Appearance is always a problem, so, we find adolescents needing to look like clones,with the same kind of hair, jeans, jackets or anything else would choose the young fashion. In part, teens can see themselves in their friends and develop a concept of
through the eyes of others. The ideal-ego of
often remains one immature, idealized self, a hope that will be fulfilled in the future. The adventure of cognitive maturation, the ability of abstraction and theachievement of elevated awareness can lead to low self esteem, just because an idealized-self istoo far from the self as perceived in the present.John Updike (quoted by Susan Harter, 1988) describes the feelings of shame and culpableself-awareness in his autobiographical account about confrontation in adolescence, with psoriasis: ”Psoriasis makes you think again. Conciliation and self-examination strategies branches out forever. You are pushed to the mirror again and again, psoriasis force you tonarcissism, if we conceive that Narcissus did not like what he saw. Anyone can hate nature thathas generated this disease but also, Nature is the one that will be addressed for healing. Onlynature can forgive psoriasis; the suffering person, in his self-contemplation can not guaranteethat power to others "(p. 40).The same happens, when appearance of adolescents can cause great unhappiness if itdoes not comply with the idealized self or when, the failure to comply with self-imposed performance standards, both, academic and social; this can lead to self-perception problems.Many teenagers simply abandon the fight, when low self-esteem interferes with motivation tosucceed in the academic, sporting or social.
is many times correlated with
and is one of theoften problems that parents brought to the attention of clinicians, in connection with their adolescents, although self-esteem problems, the depreciate self-image, the exaggerated self-criticism and disproportionate self-evaluation, may appear as features of multiple categories of disease. Among these, we can mention depression, attention disorders, social phobia,