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TOIEC Grammar - Passive Voice

TOIEC Grammar - Passive Voice

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TOEIC Grammar 
GLOBAL EDUCATION VIETNAM
www.globaledu.com.vn
 
Sponsored by:
1
Passive Voice1. Introduction
When we say what happens to people and things - what is done to them - we often use
passive verb forms
.
Example: 
I was given an interesting book in my birthday by Jane.
Several new proposals are being considered by the committee.
2. Passive verb forms (Hình th
ức bị động của động từ)
 
 
Verb forms Active PassivePresent simple
She cleans the house everyday. The house is cleaned everyday.
Presentcontinuous
 The committee is considering several newproposals.Several new proposals are beingconsidered by the committee.
Present perfect
The company has ordered some newequipment.Some new equipment has beenordered by the company.
Simple past
Tim Wilson wrote "The Flight toBrunnswick" in 1987.The Flight to Brunnswick" was writtenin 1987 by Tim Wilson.
Past continuous
They were painting the house when Iarrived.The house was being painted when Iarrived.
Past perfect
John had written a letter. A letter had been written by John.
Future
I will finish it tomorrow. It will be finished tomorrow.
Future continuous
John will be training the bear for the royalshow.The bear will be being trained byJohn for the royal show.
Future perfect
They will have elected him their leader. He will have been elected
 
their leader
Future intentionwith ‘going to’
They are going to build a new factory inPortland.A new factory is going to be built inPortland.
Presentconditional
We would clean the house if they hadvisitors.The house would be cleaned if theyhad visitors.
 
TOEIC Grammar 
GLOBAL EDUCATION VIETNAM
www.globaledu.com.vn
 
Sponsored by:
2
Past conditional
She would have cleaned the house if ithad been dirty.The house would have been cleanedif it had been dirty.
Modal Verbs
She has to do her work by tomorrow orshe’ll get in trouble with her boss.Her work has to be done by tomorrowor she'll get in trouble with her boss.
Note 
Verbs not used in the passive
(Động từ không d
ùng
ở dạng bị động)
 
Not all verbs can have passive forms. Passive structures are not possible with intransitive verbs (
n
ội động từ
)like
die, cry
or
arrive
, which cannot have objects.
He
died
yesterday. (passive)
The baby
cried
aloud. (passive)Some transitive verbs
(ngo
ại động từ)
, too, are seldom used in the passive. Most of these verbs refer tostates
(tr
ạng thái, t
 ình tr
ạng)
, not actions
(hành động)
. Examples are:
have, lack, resemble, suit
etc.
I
have
a house in the city. (BUT NOT
A house is had by me 
.)
My shirt
doesn't fit
me. (BUT NOT
I am not fitted by my shirt 
.)
You
lack
tact. (BUT NOT
Tact is lacked by you 
.)
She
resembles
an angel. (BUT NOT
An angel is resembled by her 
.)Some prepositional verbs
(động từ
có gi
ới từ
theo sau)
are mainly used in the active. Examples are:
walkinto, agree with
.
We
walked into
the room. (BUT NOT
The room was walked into by us 
.)
She
agreed with
me. (BUT NOT
I was agreed with by her 
.)
3. Passives: Agents (tác nhân)
In most cases, the subject of an active verb
(ch
ủ ngữ của câu chủ động
- the agent)
is not mentioned in thecorresponding passive sentence. If it does have to be mentioned, we usually use an expression with
by
.
 
They
gave me a warm welcome. (active)I was given a warm welcome
by them.
(passive)
 
Children
love toys. (active)Toys are loved
by children.
(passive)
 
They
built this house. (active)This house was built
by them.
(passive)
 
Her attitude
shocked me. (active)I was shocked
by her attitude.
(passive)
 
TOEIC Grammar 
GLOBAL EDUCATION VIETNAM
www.globaledu.com.vn
 
Sponsored by:
3
It should be noted that
by
is not the only word with which the agent can be introduced. After the pastparticiples of some 'stative’ verbs (verbs which refer to states, not actions) other prepositions can be usedinstead of
by
.
 
The state of his health
worries me. (active)
I am worried
about the state of his health.
(passive)
 
Snakes
scare me. (active)
I am scared
of snakes.
(passive)
With
is used when we talk about an instrument
(d
ụng
c
ụ)
which is used by an agent to do an action.
He killed the snake
with a stick.
(active)
The snake was killed (by him)
with a stick.
(passive)
4. Passives: Verbs with two objects (
Động từ có hai tân ngữ)
 
Many verbs can be followed by
two objects – an indirect object (tân ng
ữ gián tiếp)
 
and a
direct object(tân ng
ữ trực tiếp)
.
The indirect object usually refers to a person and the direct object usually refers to athing. Two structures are possible.
She gave me (
indirect object 
) a nice gift (
direct object 
).
She gave a nice gift (
direct object 
) to me (
indirect object 
).Both these structures can be made passive.
I was given a nice gift (by her). (
Indirect object becomes subject 
.)
A nice gift was given to me (by her). (
Direct object becomes subject 
.)Another example is given below.
They lent me (
indirect object 
) ten thousands pounds (
direct object 
).I was lent ten thousand pounds. (passive)Ten thousand pounds were lent to me. (passive)Common verbs that are followed by two objects include
give, send, show, lend, pay, promise, refuse, tell
and
offer
.
5. Passives: Verbs with object + infinitive (Câu v
ới động từ nguy
ên th
ể v
à m
ệnh đề l
àm tân ng
)
Most verbs can be followed by
object + infinitive
. Most of these structures can be made passive.
I told
them to behave.
(active)They were
told to behave.
(passive)
I asked
him to send
me a letter. (active)He was asked
to send me
a letter. (passive)
They
thought him to be
a traitor. (active)

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