In addition to white adipose tissue it can also be produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta (syncytiotrophoblasts), ovaries, skeletal muscle, stomach (lower part of fundicglands), mammary epithelial cells, bone marrow, pituitary and liver.Leptin has also been discovered to be synthesized from Gastric Chief Cells and P cells inthe stomach .Leptin receptors are located in the hypothalamus.It is one of the most important adipose derived hormones
Ghrelin is synthesized as a preprohormone, then proteolytically processed to yield a 28-amino acid peptide.The predominant source of circulating ghrelin is the gastrointestinal tract, primarily fromthe stomach, but also in smaller amounts from the intestine. The hypothalamus in the brain is another significant source of ghrelin; smaller amounts are produced in the placenta, kidney, and pituitary gland.Ghrelin receptor was known well before ghrelin was discovered. Cells within theanterior pituitary bear a receptor that, when activated, potently stimulates secretion of growth hormone - that receptor was named the growth hormone secretagogues receptor Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals(GHS-R).
Mechanism of action:
Hunger is the feeling experienced when one has a desire to eat. Satiety is the absence of hunger.The fluctuation of leptin and ghrelin hormone levels results in the motivation of a personto consume food. When he eats, adipocytes trigger the release of leptin into the body.Increasing levels of leptin results in a reduction of one's motivation to eat. After hours of non-consumption, leptin levels drop significantly. These low levels of leptin cause therelease of secondary hormone, ghrelin, which in turn reinitiates the feeling of hunger.Some studies have suggested that an increased production of ghrelin may enhanceappetite evoked by the sight of food, while an increase in stress may also influence thehormone's production. These findings may help to explain why hunger can prevail evenin stressful situations.
Ghrelin's activity in modulating feeding behavior and energy balance are best explained by the presence of ghrelin receptors in areas of the hypothalamus long known to beinvolved in appetite regulation. Receptors are also found concentrated in other areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and regions which may also be related to thishormone's effects on appetite. Ghrelin-responsiveness of these neurones is both leptin-