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Energy Glosssary

Energy Glosssary

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Published by: sebascian on May 20, 2010
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ENERGY Glossar
Letter A
ABSORPTANCE -- The ratio of the radiation absorbed by a surface to the total energy falling on thatsurface described as a percentage.ACCESS CHARGE -- A charge paid by all market participants withdrawing energy from the ISOcontrolled grid. The access charge will recover the portion of a utility's transmission revenuerequirement not recovered through the variable usage charge.ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY -- Solar radiation used by special equipment to provide space heating, hotwater or electricity.ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM -- A system designed to convert solar radiation into usableenergy for space, water heating, or other uses. It requires a mechanical device, usually a pump orfan, to collect the sun's energy.ACOP (Adjusted Coefficient of Performance) -- A standard rating term that was used to rate theefficiency of heat pumps in California. ACOP was replaced byHeating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) in 1988.ADDITION -- An alteration to an existing building that increases conditioned space.ADJUSTMENT BID -- A bid that is used by the ISO to adjust supply or demand when congestion isanticipated.ADVERSE HYDRO -- Water conditions limiting the production of hydroelectric power. In years havingbelow-normal levels of rain and snow, and in seasons having less-than-usual runoff from mountainsnow pack, there is then less water available for hydro energy production.AFTER-MARKET -- broad term that applies to any change after the original purchase, such asadding equipment not a part of the original purchase. As applied to alternative fuel vehicles, it refersto conversion devices or kits for conventional fuel vehicles.AGGREGATOR -- An entity responsible for planning, scheduling, accounting, billing, and settlementfor energy deliveries from the aggregator's portfolio of sellers and/or buyers. Aggregators seek to
bring together customers or generators so they can buy or sell power in bulk, making a profit on thetransaction.AIR CHANGE -- The replacement of a quantity of air in a space within a given period of time,typically expressed as air changes per hour. If a building has one air change per hour, this isequivalent to all of the air in the building being replaced in a one-hour period.AIR CONDITIONER -- An assembly of equipment for air treatment consisting of a means forventilation, air circulation, air cleaning, and heat transfer (either heating or cooling). The unit usuallyconsists of an evaporator or cooling coil, and an electrically-driven compressor and condensercombination.AIR FILM -- A layer of still air adjacent to a surface which provides some thermal resistance.AIR FILM COEFFICIENT -- A measure of the heat transfer through an air film. [See ASHRAE Table1, ASHRAE Handbook, 1985 Fundamentals]AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER -- A device with separate air chambers that transfers heat betweenthe conditioned air being exhausted and the outside air being supplied to a building.AIR POLLUTION -- Unwanted particles, mist or gases put into the atmosphere as a result of motorvehicle exhaust, the operation of industrial facilities or other human activity.ALTERATION -- Any change or modification to a building's construction. [SeeAddition].AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE -- Surrounding temperature, such as the outdoor air temperaturearound a building.ALCOHOL FUELS -- A class of liquid chemicals that have certain combinations of hydrogen, carbonand oxygen, and that are capable of being used as fuel.ALTERNATING CURRENT -- (AC) Flow of electricity that constantly changes direction betweenpositive and negative sides. Almost all power produced by electric utilities in the United States movesin current that shifts direction at a rate of 60 times per second.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES -- SeeRENEWABLE ENERGY.ALTERNATIVE (transportation) FUELS -- as defined by the National Energy Policy Act (EPAct) thefuels are: methanol, denatured ethanol and other alcohols, separately or in mixtures of 85 percent byvolume or more (or other percentage not less than 70 percent as determined by U.S. Department ofEnergy rule) with gasoline or other fuels; CNG; LNG; LPG; hydrogen; "coal-derived liquid fuels;" fuels
"other than alcohols" derived from "biological materials;" electricity, or any other fuel determined tobe "substantially not petroleum" and yielding "substantial energy security benefits and substantialenvironmental benefits."ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) -- motor vehicles that run on fuels other than petroleum-based fuels. As defined by the National Energy Policy Act (EPAct), this excludes reformulatedgasoline as an alternative fuel.AMBIENT -- The surrounding atmosphere; encompassing on all sides; the environment surroundinga body but undisturbed or unaffected by it.ANSI -- American National Standards Institute is the national organization that coordinatesdevelopment and maintenance of consensus standards and sets rules for fairness in theirdevelopment. ANSI also represents the USA in developing international standards.ANCILLARY SERVICES -- The services other than scheduled energy that are required to maintainsystem reliability and meet WSCC/NERC operating criteria. Such services include spinning, non-spinning, and replacement reserves, voltage control, and black start capability.AMPERE (Amp) -- The unit of measure that tells how much electricity flows through a conductor. It islike using cubic feet per second to measure the flow of water. For example, a 1,200 watt, 120-volthair dryer pulls 10 amperes of electric current (watts divided by volts).ANGLE OF INCIDENCE -- The angle that the sun's rays make with a line perpendicular to a surface.The angle of incidence determines the percentage of direct sunshine intercepted by a surface.ANNUAL MAXIMUM DEMAND -- The greatest of all demands of the electrical load which occurredduring a prescribed interval in a calendar year.ANIMAL WASTE CONVERSION -- Process of obtaining energy from animal wastes. This is a type ofbiomass energy.AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) -- A measure of heating efficiency, in consistent units,determined by applying the federal test method for furnaces. This value is intended to represent theratio of heat transferred to the conditioned space by the fuel energy supplied over one year. [SeeCalifornia Code of Regulations, Title 20, Section 1602(d)(1)]ANTHRACITE -- Hard coal, found deep in the earth. It burns very hot, with little flame. It usually hasa heating value of 12,000-15,000 British thermal units (Btus) per pound.

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