Ferrite can be strictly defined as a solid solution of ironin body-centered cubic(BCC) containing a maximum of 0.03% carbon at 723 °C (1,333 °F) and0.006% carbon at room temperature.Mild steel(carbon steel with up to about 0.2 wt% C) consist mostly of ferrite, with increasingamounts of pearlite(a fine lamellar structure of ferrite andcementite
) as the carbon content isincreased. Since bainite(shown as ledeburite on the diagram) and pearlite each have ferrite as acomponent, any iron-carbon alloy will contain some amount of ferrite if it is allowed to reachequilibriumat room temperature.Iron-carbon phase diagram,showing the conditions under which
(α) is stable.In pure iron, ferrite is stable below 910 °C (1,670 °F). Above this temperature theface-centeredcubicform of iron,austenite(gamma-iron) is stable. Above 1,390 °C (2,530 °F), up to themelting pointat 1,539 °C (2,802 °F), the body-centred cubic crystal structure is again the morestable form of
).Only a very small amount of carboncan be dissolved in ferrite; the maximumsolubilityis about0.02 wt% at 723 °C (1,333 °F). This is because carbon dissolves in iron interstitially, with thecarbon atoms being about twice the diameter of the interstitial "holes", so that each carbon atomis surrounded by a strong localstrain field.Hence theenthalpyof mixing is positive(unfavourable), but the contribution of entropyto thefree energyof solutionstabilises thestructure for low carbon content. 723 °C (1,333 °F) also is the minimum temperature at whichiron-carbon austenite (0.8 wt% C) is stable; at this temperature there is aeutectoidreaction between ferrite, austenite andcementite.
may refer to:
Ferrite, iron or iron alloys with a body centred cubic crystal structure.
, where A and B representvarious metalcations, usually including iron. Theseceramicmaterials are used in applicationsranging from magnetic components to microelectronics.Ferrites are a class of spinels,materials that adopt a crystal motif consisting of cubic close- packed (FCC) oxides (O
) with A cations occupying one eighth of the tetrahedral holes and Bcations occupying half of the octahedral holes. The magnetic material known as "ZnFe" has thedeceptively simple formula ZnFe
, with Fe
occupying the octahedral sites and half of thetetrahedral sites. The remaining tetrahedral sites in this spinel are occupied by Zn
) as well asoxidesof other metals. Ferrites are, likemost other ceramics, hard and brittle. In terms of the magnetic properties, ferrites are oftenclassified as "soft" and "hard" which refers to their low or highcoercivityof their magnetism,respectively.
. Because of their comparatively low losses at high frequencies, they are extensively used in the cores of switched-mode power supply (SMPS)andRFtransformers andinductors. A common ferrite, chemicalsymbol MnZn, is composed of the oxides of manganese and zinc.
.The resulting mixture of oxides undergoessintering. Afterwards the cooled product is milled to particles smaller than 2µmin order to produceWeiss domainsin the size of one particle. Nextthe powder is pressed into a shape, dried, and re-sintered. The shaping may be performed in anexternal magnetic field, in order to achieve a preferred orientation of the particles (anisotropy).Small and geometrically easy shapes may be produced with dry pressing. However, in such a process small particles may agglomerate and lead to poorer magnetic properties compared to thewet pressing process. Direct calcination and sintering without re-milling is possible as well butleads to poor magnetic properties.Electromagnets are pre-sintered as well (pre-reaction), milled and pressed. However, thesintering takes place in a specific atmosphere, for instance one with anoxygenshortage). Thechemical composition and especially the structure vary strongly between the precursor and thesintered product.
.Ferrite powders are used in the coatings of magneticrecording tapes. One such type of material isiron (III) oxide.Ferrite particles are also used as a component of radar-absorbing materials or coatings used instealthaircraft and in the expensive absorption tiles lining the rooms used for electromagneticcompatibilitymeasurements.Most common radio magnets, including those used in loudspeakers, are ferrite magnets. Ferritemagnets have largely displacedAlnicomagnets in these applications.It is a common magnetic material for electromagnetic instrument pickups,because of price andrelatively high output. However, such pickups lack certain sonic qualities found in other pickups,such as those that use Alnico alloys or more sophisticated magnets.