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ferred to the environment. Show that the Clausius state-ment of the second law of thermodynamics is violated.(c) Find the energy input and work output of engine S as it puts out exhaust energy of 100J. (d) Let engine S operateas in (c) and contribute 150J of its work output to runningthe Carnot engine in reverse. Find the total energy the

ﬁ

re-box puts out as both engines operate together, the total work output, and the total energy transferred to the envi-ronment. Show that the Kelvin

–

Planck statement of the sec-ond law is violated. Thus our assumption about the ef

ﬁ

-ciency of engine S must be false. (e) Let the enginesoperate together through one cycle as in part (d). Find thechange in entropy of the Universe. Show that the entropy statement of the second law is violated.

22.

At point

A

in a Carnot cycle, 2.34mol of a monatomicideal gas has a pressure of 1400kPa, a volume of 10.0L,and a temperature of 720K. It expands isothermally topoint

B

, and then expands adiabatically to point

C

whereits volume is 24.0L. An isothermal compression brings it to point

D

, where its volume is 15.0L. An adiabatic processreturns the gas to point

A

. (a) Determine all the unknownpressures, volumes and temperatures as you

ﬁ

ll in thefollowing table:

26.

A heat pump, shown in Figure P22.26, is essentially an airconditioner installed backward. It extracts energy fromcolder air outside and deposits it in a warmer room. Sup-pose that the ratio of the actual energy entering the roomto the work done by the device

’

s motor is 10.0% of the the-oretical maximum ratio. Determine the energy enteringthe room per joule of work done by the motor, given that the inside temperature is 20.0

°

C and the outside tempera-ture is

5.00

°

C.How much work does an ideal Carnot refrigeratorrequire to remove 1.00J of energy from helium at 4.00K and reject this energy to a room-temperature (293-K)environment?

28.

A refrigerator maintains a temperature of 0

°

C in the coldcompartment with a room temperature of 25.0

°

C. It removes energy from the cold compartment at the rate of 8000kJ/h. (a) What minimum power is required tooperate the refrigerator? (b) The refrigerator exhaustsenergy into the room at what rate?

29.

If a 35.0%-ef

ﬁ

cient Carnot heat engine (Fig. 22.2) is run inreverse so as to form a refrigerator (Fig. 22.5), what wouldbe this refrigerator

’

s coef

ﬁ

cient of performance?

30.

Two Carnot engines have the same ef

ﬁ

ciency. One engineruns in reverse as a heat pump, and the other runs in reverseas a refrigerator. The coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of the heat pump is 1.50 times the coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of therefrigerator. Find (a) the coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of therefrigerator, (b) the coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of the heat pump, and (c) the ef

ﬁ

ciency of each heat engine.

Section 22.5Gasoline and Diesel Engines

In a cylinder of an automobile engine, just after combus-tion, the gas is con

ﬁ

ned to a volume of 50.0cm

3

and hasan initial pressure of 3.00

10

6

Pa. The piston moves out- ward to a

ﬁ

nal volume of 300cm

3

, and the gas expands without energy loss by heat. (a) If

1.40 for the gas, what is the

ﬁ

nal pressure? (b) How much work is done by the gas in expanding?

32.

A gasoline engine has a compression ratio of 6.00 anduses a gas for which

1.40. (a) What is the efficiency

31.27.

698

CHAPTER 22 •

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Q

h

Inside

T

h

Outside

T

c

Q

c

Heat pump

FigureP22.26

PVT A

1400kPa10.0L720K

B C

24.0L

D

15.0L(b) Find the energy added by heat, the work done by theengine, and the change in internal energy for each of thesteps

A

:

B

,

B

:

C

,

C

:

D

, and

D

:

A

. (c) Calculate theef

ﬁ

ciency

W

net

/Q

h

. Show that it is equal to 1

T

C

/T

A

,the Carnot efficiency.

23.

What is the coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of a refrigeratorthat operates with Carnot ef

ﬁ

ciency between temperatures

3.00

°

C and

27.0

°

C?

24.

What is the maximum possible coef

ﬁ

cient of performanceof a heat pump that brings energy from outdoors at

3.00

°

C into a 22.0

°

C house? Note that the work done torun the heat pump is also available to warm up the house. An ideal refrigerator or ideal heat pump is equivalent to aCarnot engine running in reverse. That is, energy

Q

c

istaken in from a cold reservoir and energy

Q

h

is rejected toa hot reservoir. (a) Show that the work that must be sup-plied to run the refrigerator or heat pump is(b) Show that the coef

ﬁ

cient of performance of the idealrefrigerator isCOP

T

c

T

h

T

c

W

T

h

T

c

T

c

Q

c

25.

Q

(input)

W

(output)

E

int

A

:

B B

:

C C

:

D D

:

A ABCDA

of the engine if it operates in an idealized Otto cycle?(b)

What If?

If the actual efficiency is 15.0%, what fraction of the fuel is wasted as a result of friction andenergy losses by heat that could by avoided in a re- versible engine? (Assume complete combustion of theair

–

fuel mixture.)

33.

A 1.60-L gasoline engine with a compression ratio of 6.20has a useful power output of 102hp. Assuming the en-gine operates in an idealized Otto cycle,

ﬁ

nd the energy taken in and the energy exhausted each second. Assumethe fuel

–

air mixture behaves like an ideal gas with

1.40.

34.

The compression ratio of an Otto cycle, as shown in Figure22.13, is

V

A

/

V

B

8.00. At the beginning

A

of the compres-sion process, 500cm

3

of gas is at 100kPa and 20.0

°

C. At the beginning of the adiabatic expansion the temperatureis

T

C

750

°

C. Model the working

ﬂ

uid as an ideal gas with

E

int

nC

V

T

2.50

nRT

and

1.40. (a) Fill in thetable below to follow the states of the gas:

38.

In making raspberry jelly, 900g of raspberry juice is com-bined with 930g of sugar. The mixture starts at room tem-perature, 23.0

°

C, and is slowly heated on a stove until it reaches 220

°

F. It is then poured into heated jars and al-lowed to cool. Assume that the juice has the same speci

ﬁ

cheat as water. The speci

ﬁ

c heat of sucrose is 0.299cal/g

°

C.Consider the heating process. (a) Which of the followingterms describe(s) this process: adiabatic, isobaric, isother-mal, isovolumetric, cyclic, reversible, isentropic? (b) Howmuch energy does the mixture absorb? (c) What is the mini-mum change in entropy of the jelly while it is heated?

39.

What change in entropy occurs when a 27.9-g ice cube at

12

°

C is transformed into steam at 115

°

C?

Section 22.7Entropy Changes in IrreversibleProcesses

40.

The temperature at the surface of the Sun is approxi-mately 5700K, and the temperature at the surface of theEarth is approximately 290K. What entropy change occurs when 1000J of energy is transferred by radiation from theSun to the Earth? A 1500-kg car is moving at 20.0m/s. The driverbrakes to a stop. The brakes cool off to the temperature of the surrounding air, which is nearly constant at 20.0

°

C. What is the total entropy change?

42.

A 1.00-kg iron horseshoe is taken from a forge at 900

°

Cand dropped into 4.00kg of water at 10.0

°

C. Assumingthat no energy is lost by heat to the surroundings, deter-mine the total entropy change of the horseshoe-plus-watersystem.

43.

How fast are you personally making the entropy of theUniverse increase right now? Compute an order-of-magni-tude estimate, stating what quantities you take as data andthe values you measure or estimate for them.

44.

A rigid tank of small mass contains 40.0g of argon, initially at 200

°

C and 100kPa. The tank is placed into a reservoirat 0

°

C and allowed to cool to thermal equilibrium. (a) Cal-culate the volume of the tank. (b) Calculate the change ininternal energy of the argon. (c) Calculate the energy transferred by heat. (d) Calculate the change in entropy of the argon. (e) Calculate the change in entropy of the con-stant-temperature bath. A 1.00-mol sample of H

2

gas is contained in the left-handside of the container shown in Figure P22.45, which hasequal volumes left and right. The right-hand side is evacu-ated. When the valve is opened, the gas streams into theright-hand side. What is the

ﬁ

nal entropy change of thegas? Does the temperature of the gas change?

45.41.

Problems

699

Valve VacuumH

2

FigureP22.45

T

(K)

P

(kPa)

V

(cm

3

)

E

int

A

293100500

B C

1023

D A

(c) Identify the energy input

Q

h

, the energy exhaust

Q

c

,and the net output work

W

eng

. (d) Calculate the thermalef

ﬁ

ciency. (e) Find the number of crankshaft revolutionsper minute required for a one-cylinder engine to haveanoutput power of 1.00kW

1.34hp. Note that thethermodynamic cycle involves four piston strokes.

Section 22.6Entropy

35.

An ice tray contains 500g of liquid water at 0

°

C. Calculatethe change in entropy of the water as it freezes slowly andcompletely at 0

°

C.

36.

At a pressure of 1atm, liquid helium boils at 4.20K. Thelatent heat of vaporization is 20.5kJ/kg. Determine theentropy change (per kilogram) of the helium resultingfrom vaporization.Calculate the change in entropy of 250g of water heatedslowly from 20.0

°

C to 80.0

°

C. (

Suggestion:

Note that

dQ

mc dT.

)

37.

(b) Fill in the table below to follow the processes:

644

Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Section 22.5

Gasoline and Diesel Engines

P22.31

(a)

PV P V

iif f

γ γ

=

P PV V

f ii f

=

F H GI K J

= ×

F H GI K J

=

γ

30010500300244

61.40

..PacmcmkPa

33

e j

(b)

W PdV

V V

ii

=

z

P PV V

ii

=

F H GI K J

γ

Integrating,

W PV V V

i ii f

=−

F H GI K J

−

F H GI K J LNMMOQPP

= × × −

F H GI K J LNMMOQPP

=

−−

11125030010500101500300192

1650400

γ

γ

....

.

a fe je j

Pa mcmcmJ

333

P22.32

Compression ratio

=

600.,

γ

=

140.(a)Efficiency of an Otto-engine

eV V

= −

F H GI K J

−

1

211

γ

e

= −

F H GI K J

=

11600512%

0400

..

.

.(b)If actual efficiency

′=

e

150%.

losses in system are

e e

− ′ =

362%..

P22.33

eV V

Otto

= − = − = −

−−

111162011620

1217510400

b gafa f

b g

γ

..

.

e

Otto

=

0518.We have assumed the fuel-air mixture to behave like a diatomic gas.Now

eW QW tQ t

h h

= =

engeng

QtW teQtQ W QQtQtW tQt

hhh cchc

= === += −= × −

F H GI K J

=

eng eng eng

hp746 W1 hpkWW hp746 W1 hpkW102051814614610102708

3

..

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