candidates might result from the
of a certain strategy. The moments of
might consequently precipitate an inversion in the thematic flux.As anevaluation approach, content analysis is considered to be quasi-evaluation because content analysis judgments need not be based on valuestatements. Instead,
they can be based onknowledge. Such content analyses are not evaluations.On the
other hand, when content analysis judgments are based on values, such studies areevaluations (Frisbie, 1986).As demonstrated above, only a good scientific hypothesis can lead to the developmentof a methodology that will allow the empirical description, be it dynamic or static.
Uses of Content Analysis
Holsti (1969) groups fifteen uses of content analysis into three basiccategories: makeinferences about the antecedents of acommunication, describeand make inferences
about characteristics of a communication, and make inferences about theeffects of a
communication. He also places these uses into the context of the basic communication paradigm.The following table shows fifteen uses of content analysis in terms of their general purpose, element of the communication paradigm to which they apply, and thegeneral question they are intended to answer.
Uses of Content Analysis by Purpose, Communication Element, and QuestionPurposeElementQuestionUse
Make inferences about theantecedents of communicationsSourceWho?
Answer questions of disputed authorshipEncoding processWhy?
Secure political &military intelligence
Analyze traits of individuals
Infer cultural aspects& change
Provide legal &evaluative evidenceDescribe & makeinferences about thecharacteristics of communicationsChannelHow?
Analyze techniquesof persuasion
Describe trends incommunication