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Number Theory

Number Theory

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Published by Rahul Gupta
number theory,titu 104 problems
number theory,titu 104 problems

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Published by: Rahul Gupta on May 20, 2010
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Number Theory
Naoki Sato
<sato@artofproblemsolving.com>
0 Preface
This set of notes on number theory was originally written in 1995 for studentsat the IMO level. It covers the basic background material that an IMOstudent should be familiar with. This text is meant to be a reference, andnot a replacement but rather a supplement to a number theory textbook;several are given at the back. Proofs are given when appropriate, or whenthey illustrate some insight or important idea. The problems are culled fromvarious sources, many from actual contests and olympiads, and in generalare very difficult. The author welcomes any corrections or suggestions.
1 Divisibility
For integers
a
and
b
, we say that
a
divides
b
, or that
a
is a
divisor
(or
factor
) of 
b
, or that
b
is a
multiple
of 
a
, if there exists an integer
c
suchthat
b
=
ca
, and we denote this by
a
|
b
. Otherwise,
a
does not divide
b
, andwe denote this by
a
 
b
. A positive integer
p
is a
prime
if the only divisors of 
 p
are 1 and
p
. If 
p
k
|
a
and
p
k
+1
  
a
where
p
is a prime, i.e.
p
k
is the highestpower of 
p
dividing
a
, then we denote this by
p
k
a
.Useful Facts
If 
a
,
b >
0, and
a
|
b
, then
a
b
.
If 
a
|
b
1
,
a
|
b
2
, ...,
a
|
b
n
, then for any integers
c
1
,
c
2
, ...,
c
n
,
a
|
n
i
=1
b
i
c
i
.
Theorem 1.1
.
The Division Algorithm 
. For any positive integer
a
andinteger
b
, there exist unique integers
q
and
r
such that
b
=
qa
+
r
and0
r < a
, with
r
= 0 iff 
a
|
b
.1
 
Theorem 1.2
.
The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
. Every integergreater than 1 can be written uniquely in the form
 p
e
1
1
p
e
2
2
···
 p
e
k
k
,
where the
p
i
are distinct primes and the
e
i
are positive integers.
Theorem 1.3
. (Euclid) There exist an infinite number of primes.
Proof 
. Suppose that there are a finite number of primes, say
p
1
,
p
2
, ...,
 p
n
. Let
=
p
1
 p
2
···
 p
n
+ 1. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic,
is divisible by some prime
p
. This prime
p
must be among the
p
i
, since byassumption these are all the primes, but
is seen not to be divisible by anyof the
p
i
, contradiction.
Example 1.1
. Let
x
and
y
be integers. Prove that 2
x
+ 3
y
is divisibleby 17 iff 9
x
+ 5
y
is divisible by 17.
Solution
. 17
|
(2
x
+ 3
y
)
17
|
[13(2
x
+ 3
y
)], or 17
|
(26
x
+ 39
y
)
17
|
(9
x
+ 5
y
), and conversely, 17
|
(9
x
+ 5
y
)
17
|
[4(9
x
+ 5
y
)], or17
|
(36
x
+ 20
y
)
17
|
(2
x
+ 3
y
).
Example 1.2
. Find all positive integers
d
such that
d
divides both
n
2
+1and (
n
+ 1)
2
+ 1 for some integer
n
.
Solution
. Let
d
|
(
n
2
+ 1) and
d
|
[(
n
+ 1)
2
+ 1], or
d
|
(
n
2
+ 2
n
+ 2).Then
d
|
[(
n
2
+ 2
n
+ 2)
(
n
2
+ 1)], or
d
|
(2
n
+ 1)
d
|
(4
n
2
+ 4
n
+ 1), so
d
|
[4(
n
2
+2
n
+2)
(4
n
2
+4
n
+1)], or
d
|
(4
n
+7). Then
d
|
[(4
n
+7)
2(2
n
+1)],or
d
|
5, so
d
can only be 1 or 5. Taking
n
= 2 shows that both of thesevalues are achieved.
Example 1.3
. Suppose that
a
1
,
a
2
, ...,
a
2
n
are distinct integers suchthat the equation(
x
a
1
)(
x
a
2
)
···
(
x
a
2
n
)
(
1)
n
(
n
!)
2
= 0has an integer solution
r
. Show that
r
=
a
1
+
a
2
+
···
+
a
2
n
2
n.
(1984 IMO Short List)
Solution
. Clearly,
r
=
a
i
for all
i
, and the
r
a
i
are 2
n
distinct integers,so
|
(
r
a
1
)(
r
a
2
)
···
(
r
a
2
n
)
| ≥ |
(1)(2)
···
(
n
)(
1)(
2)
···
(
n
)
|
= (
n
!)
2
,
2
 
with equality iff 
{
r
a
1
,r
a
2
,...,r
a
2
n
}
=
{
1
,
2
,...,n,
1
,
2
,...,
n
}
.
Therefore, this must be the case, so(
r
a
1
) + (
r
a
2
) +
···
+ (
r
a
2
n
)= 2
nr
(
a
1
+
a
2
+
···
+
a
2
n
)= 1 + 2 +
···
+
n
+ (
1) + (
2) +
···
+ (
n
) = 0
r
=
a
1
+
a
2
+
···
+
a
2
n
2
n.
Example 1.4
. Let 0
< a
1
< a
2
<
···
< a
mn
+1
be
mn
+1 integers. Provethat you can select either
m
+ 1 of them no one of which divides any other,or
n
+ 1 of them each dividing the following one.(1966 Putnam Mathematical Competition)
Solution
. For each
i
, 1
i
mn
+1, let
n
i
be the length of the longestsequence starting with
a
i
and each dividing the following one, among theintegers
a
i
,
a
i
+1
, ...,
a
mn
+1
. If some
n
i
is greater than
n
then the problemis solved. Otherwise, by the pigeonhole principle, there are at least
m
+ 1values of 
n
i
that are equal. Then, the integers
a
i
corresponding to these
n
i
cannot divide each other.Useful Facts
Bertrand’s Postulate
. For every positive integer
n
, there exists a prime
 p
such that
n
p
2
n
.
Gauss’s Lemma 
. If a polynomial with integer coefficients factors intotwo polynomials with rational coefficients, then it factors into two poly-nomials with integer coefficients.Problems1. Let
a
and
b
be positive integers such that
a
|
b
2
,
b
2
|
a
3
,
a
3
|
b
4
,
b
4
|
a
5
,.... Prove that
a
=
b
.2. Let
a
,
b
, and
c
denote three distinct integers, and let
denote a poly-nomial having all integral coefficients. Show that it is impossible that
(
a
) =
b
,
(
b
) =
c
, and
(
c
) =
a
.(1974 USAMO)3

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