vacancies in command posts.One Hellenistic ruler aimed to win Alexander's titles andAlexander's kingdoms: Antigonus set his one eye on both. In 316he was treated as “Lord of Asia,”
and he was said by Seleucusto be aiming at “the entire kingship of the Macedonians,”
thatis, to be king of Macedones wherever they were. There is asignificant contrast in terminology: king of a territory and king of persons.I turn now to the nature of the Macedonian monarchy, onwhich some new light has recently been shed. The monarch isdescribed first by Herodotus and then by Thucydides as “king of Macedones.”
“King” and “Macedones” make up the officialstate. The king may address the Macedones in assembly; theMacedones may honor the king.
They both appear in thefragmentary inscription of the treaty between Perdiccas II andAthens;
for he and other royals and then leading commonersare the official representatives of “Makedonon.” One or otherstands for both in some official documents, such as the treatybetween Amyntas III and the Chalcidians,
and in relations withthe Delphic Amphictyony, where in 346 votes were given to Philipor to “Macedones,”
contributions were recorded “fromMacedones,” and delegates were sent “from Alexander.” Theterms were used together until the end of the free MacedonianState. Rome proclaimed at the Isthmian Games in 190 hervictory over “King Philip and Macedones”; and then at Rome andat Delphi her victory over “Macedones and King Perseus.”
Thetwo parts operated the State. What did the Macedones do? Theyelected, and, when they wished, they deposed a king (e.g.,Amyntas III).
The Macedones decided cases of treason, theking prosecuting. The Macedones in assembly were addressed bythe king or by his guardian—for instance by Philip to take theoffensive against Bardylis, and by Alexander to win the Kingdomof all Asia—and in each case they decided what to do, whethermeeting in Pella or on the bank of the Hydaspes.
In all meetings of Macedones of which we know theMacedones met under arms: certainly for the election of a king,for trying a case of treason, for deciding to attack Bardylis, andfor deciding to win all Asia. The conclusion seems to be clear,that the Macedones were serving soldiers; and we may add ex-soldiers, because Olympias asked to be tried by all Macedonesand because Antigonus held an assembly of Macedones at Tyre