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Kuda-edina Chapter 3

Kuda-edina Chapter 3

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Published by kays chapanda

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Published by: kays chapanda on May 21, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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3.0 Introduction
This section explains how the research was carried out. It looks at the research design andinstruments that were used for collection of data. In other words the researcher is going todiscuss different methods used in gathering data and research designs for the research onrecapitalisation challenges and strategies to overcome them.. The researcher used sources of data such as primary sources, which are personal interviews and questionnaires. Theinstruments used are important so as to ensure their validity and reliability.
3.1 Research Design
A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting andanalyzing the needed information (Zikmund, 1994). Borg and Gall (1989:324) also definedresearch design as, “a process of creating an empirical test to support or refute a knowledgeclaim.Therefore, the research design provides a blue print for reacting to the objectives of the research hence gives a framework for the research plan of action (Smith, 1996). In thisresearch study, case study and descriptive research design were used. Murimba and Moyo(1987:14) defined case study research design as “the intensive investigation into aspects of anindividual, a social unit, or a small portion of the community in an effort to gain deeper insight about these.” In this regard, the researcher therefore focused on Zimbabwe Iron andSteel Company using this design on intensive investigation into the recapitalisationchallenges and strategies to overcome them.
3.1.1 Descriptive Research Design
The researcher conducted in-depth surveys through open interviews and questionnaires withthe small number of the intended target respondents to investigate on recapitalisation
challenges and strategies to overcome them.. Descriptive research design provides answers toquestions such as who, what, when, where and how of topic under study, (Kotler, 1997). It isconcerned with the conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held processes thatare going on and effects that are evident (Best and Khan 1993:105).The method was chosen because the data solicited is not static, the recapitalisation challengesfaced today may not be the same in future. Descriptive research thus allowed for thecollection of both qualitative and quantitative data, therefore, some statistical techniques wereused to summarise the information. Through descriptive research, the researcher was alsoable to use both primary and secondary data, which could not have been utilised if exploratory research had been used.
3.2 Sampling3.2.1 Target Population
This defines the aggregate of all elements from where information is to be derived.According to Martins (1995), target population is that part of the population to which thestudy is based. The research is based on Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company. All companymanagerial staff formed part of the target population. There are 5 people from topmanagement, 11 middle management and 19 low level management thus making a total of 35
3.2.2 Sample Size
The researcher considered various factors such as accuracy and cost hence a total sample of 15 respondents was used. The sample units which are the basic level of investigations consistof top, low and middle management.
Table 3.2 Sample Size Used
Source: Research
Only a group of individuals w selectedwho will be readilyavailable andaccessible with a minimum effort and those people with expert knowledge will be chosen andthis method will be generally cost effectiveThe researcher will use a sample of 15employees. The sample size is consideredrepresentative because management from all departments will be interviewed.
3.2.3 Sampling techniques
This is the way used to choose research subjects that were used to constitute a sample that isrepresentative of the population. These are classified into two that is probability and non- probability sampling procedure. A probability sampling procedure is one in which everyelement has known non-zero probability of being chosen (Hair, 1998:160). Non probabilitysampling relies on the judgment of the researcher and is only representative as far as theresearchers’ skill permits (Martins, 1995:239). In this research the researcher adopted bothsampling method at different stages. The researcher used stratified sampling first and then judgmental sampling. a) Stratified sampling
This method falls under probability sampling and it involves segregating the population of study into mutually exclusive population or strata. In the research project, the population hadto be divided into different departments that are Human Resources, Marketing, Productionand finance department. This technique was used to allow each department to get fullrepresentation. Also it allows the use of other sampling procedures thus after using thistechnique; individuals from each department were selected using judgmental technique.However, stratified sampling has some limitations. If undue weight is given to the unit thesample becomes unrepresentative. Also when the sizes of the different stratus are unequalattainment of correct proportion becomes difficult
Top level managementMiddle level managementLow level management

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