VIDEO COMPRESSING TECHNIQUES- MPEG2
Video compression refers to reducing the quantity of data used to represent video content without excessivelyreducing the quality of the picture. It also reduces the number of bits required to store and/or transmit digitalmedia. Compressed video can be transmitted more economically over a smaller carrier.Digital video requires high data rates - the better the picture, the more data is ordinarily needed. This means powerful hardware, and lots of bandwidth when video is transmitted. However much of the data in video is notnecessary for achieving good perceptual quality, e.g., because it can be easily predicted - for example, successiveframes in a movie rarely change much from one to the next - this makes data compression work well with video.Video compression can make video files far smaller with little perceptible loss in quality. For example, DVDsuse a video coding standard called MPEG-2 that makes the movie 15 to 30 times smaller while still producing a picture quality that is generally considered high quality for standard-definition video. Without proper use of datacompression techniques, either the picture would look much worse, or one would need more such disks per movie.
Video is basically a three-dimensional array of color pixels. Two dimensions serve as spatial (horizontal andvertical) directions of the moving pictures, and one dimension represents the time domain. A frame is a set of all pixels that correspond to a single point in time. Basically, a frame is the same as a still picture. (These aresometimes made up of fields. See interlace)Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy. Similarities can thus be encoded by merely registeringdifferences within a frame (spatial) and/or between frames (temporal). Spatial encoding is performed by takingadvantage of the fact that the human eye is unable to distinguish small differences in colour as easily as it canchanges in brightness and so very similar areas of colour can be "averaged out" in a similar way to jpeg images(JPEG image compression FAQ, part 1/2). With temporal compression only the changes from one frame to thenext are encoded as often a large number of the pixels will be the same on a series of frames (About videocompression).
Some forms of data compression are lossless. This means that when the data is decompressed, the result is a bit-for-bit perfect match with the original. While lossless compression of video is possible, it is rarely used. This is because any lossless compression system will sometimes result in a file (or portions of) that is as large and/or has the same data rate as the uncompressed original. As a result, all hardware in a lossless system would have to be able to run fast enough to handle uncompressed video as well. This eliminates much of the benefit of compressing the data in the first place. For example, digital videotape can't vary its data rate easily so dealingwith short bursts of maximum-data-rate video would be more complicated than something that was fixed at themaximum rate all the time.
Intraframe vs interframe compression
One of the most powerful techniques for compressing video is interframe compression. This works by comparingeach frame in the video with the previous one. If the frame contains areas where nothing has moved, the systemsimply issues a short command that copies that part of the previous frame, bit-for-bit, into the next one. If objects move in a simple manner, the compressor emits a (slightly longer) command that tells the decompressor to shift, rotate, lighten, or darken the copy -- a longer command, but still much shorter than intraframecompression. Interframe compression is best for finished programs that will simply be played back by the viewer.Interframe compression can cause problems if it is used for editing.1Since Interframe compression copies data from one frame to another, if the original frame is simply cut out (or lost in transmission), the following frames cannot be reconstructed. Some video formats, such as DV, compresseach frame independently, as if they were all unrelated still images (using image compression techniques). Thisis called intraframe compression. Editing intraframe-compressed video is almost as easy as editing uncompressed