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Image Processing Using Delphi

Image Processing Using Delphi

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Published by Setip Kandio

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Published by: Setip Kandio on May 22, 2010
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05/12/2014

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Chapter 2. Delphi Components and Graphical User Interface
Chapter 3. Image Histogram
Chapter 4. Pixel Operation
CHAPTER 1Introduction
Have you ever used Photoshop or other image processing software to make a cool impressive oilpainting style of your photograph? Do you know that number of cars parking in basement can bededucted automatically by computer using the image captured by a camera in real time? That's whatimage processing done to make them possible.Using Delphi is fun because you can design graphical user interface easily and rapidly. If you'refamiliar with Photoshop, Gimp, or other image processing software, you might be wonder how suchsoftware is written. With image processing techniques, you can write a software to manipulate image brightness, contrast, finding the edge feature, giving emboss effect, or change the picture to an oilpainting look. Learning image processing is really fun, and using Delphi as the development tools
 
make it more fun. You will learn basic image processing concept, formulas, and advanced applicationof it.Image processing deals with color manipulation, pixel-by-pixel operation, even frame-by-frameoperation. In this blog, I will try to share and discuss many image processing techniques, rangin from basic to advanced topics.
Many types of image processing can be classified into some categories:
1.
Pixel operation, is an operation of pixels, that each pixel in an image is operatedindependently, means that the value of the pixel is not affected by other pixels value. Itdepends solely on its previous value and the operation parameters. Brightness and contrastmanipulation are the examples.2.Global operation, when a global characteristic of an image is used to deduct the parameter tooperate each pixel. The global characteristic is usually determined using statistical method,for example is automatic brightness and contrast equalization, where the histogram isredistributed for a better distribution.3.Multi-frame operation, where an image is operated with other images to get a result. Forexample is the generation of transitional image of subsequent slow motion picture. When a 20fps (frames per second) movie will be played back four times slower, it looks smoother if weshow them in 20 fps with 3 additional transition frames between the two original frames,rather than show only the original frames by 5 fps.4.Geometric operation, where the shape, size, or the orientation is modified. Resizing andskewing are some examples.
5.
Neighboring pixels operation, where the result of a pixel operation depends not only on itsprevious value but also on other surrounding pixels values. Smoothing and sharpeningoperation are some examples.
6.
Morphologic operation, is operation that is focused on specific image region. This operation isclosely related to image analysis, because it deals with object/morph detection algorithm.
 
There are many digital image representation such as raster and vector format. The raster typerepresent the image in pixels, while vector type represent the image in vector notation (curve, line,circle, etc). Only raster type will be discussed here. Raster image is constructed by many pixels, whereeach pixel is arranged in rows and columns. Each pixel can be addressed by its Cartesian coordinate. Within raster image, there are some very popular formats: binary, gray scale, true color, and indexedcolor.
Binary Image
In binary image, there are only two values: 0 or 1, representing two different colors. Most commoncolor mapping is black for 0 and white for 1. Example of binary image is shown in figure 1.
Figure 1. Binary ImageGray Scale
Using gray scale, the intensity of a pixel can vary in many values, giving smoother image. Each pixelcan has many possible values, depending on the bit-depth of the format, for example, an 8 bit gray scale has 256 possible value for each pixel to represent the dot intensity. The most common colormapping for gray scale is black for 0 (zero) value, white for maximum value (255 in case of 8-bitimage), and gray for values in between. Other color mapping is possible such as dark brown for zeroand light orange for maximum value. An example of a gray scale image is shown in figure 2.
Figure 2. Gray Scale ImageTrue Color Image
In a color image, a specific color of a pixel is represented as a combination of three primary color: red,green, and blue (RGB), therefor this true color format is also known as RGB format. This RGBprimary color is using display format, where the display device normally has red, green, and blue lightsource to construct a pixel. This is different with printing based representation that normally uses

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