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LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES

LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES

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Published by: salim1321 on May 22, 2010
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11/19/2012

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LEADERSHIP THEORIESAND STYLES
Submitted to
Mr. G. B. SITARAM
(
FACULTY, MBA
)
Submitted by
MUHAMMAD SALIM07217003909
MBA 1
ST
semester 
 
LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Trait Theory
The Trait Approach arose from the “Great Man” theory as a way of identifying thekey characteristics of successful leaders. It was believed that through this approachcritical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits couldthen be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions. This approachwas common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to select candidatesfor commissions.The problem with the trait approach lies in the fact that almost as many traits asstudies undertaken were identified. After several years of such research, it becameapparent that no consistent traits could be identified. Although some traits werefound in a considerable number of studies, the results
 
were generally inconclusive.Some leaders might have possessed certain traits but the absence of them did notnecessarily mean that the person was not a leader.Although there was little consistency in the results of the various trait studies,however, some traits did appear more frequently than others, including: technicalskill, friendliness, task motivation, application to task, group task supportiveness,social skill, emotional control, administrative skill, general charisma, andintelligence. Of these, the most widely explored has tended to be “charisma”.
 
Stogdill’s Trait Theory
Assumptions:People are born with inherited traits.Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.Description:Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day,which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the
 
underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits,then they, too, could also become great leaders.Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders. 
TraitsSkills
Adaptable tosituations
Alert to socialenvironment
Ambitious andachievement-orientated
Assertive
Cooperative
Decisive
Dependable
Dominant (desireto influence others)
Energetic (highactivity level)
Persistent
Self-confident
Tolerant of stress
Willing to assumeresponsibility
Clever (intelligent)
Conceptuallyskilled
Creative
Diplomatic andtactful
Fluent in speaking
Knowledgeableabout group task 
Organised(administrative ability)
Persuasive
Socially skilled McCall and Lombardo (1983) researched both success and failure identified four  primary traits by which leaders could succeed or 'derail':
Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress.
Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy intocovering up.
Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others withoutresort to negative or coercive tactics.
Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather thanhaving a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.

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