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VSAT Report.pdf

VSAT Report.pdf

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Published by vaibhav

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: vaibhav on May 22, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Long distance communication through conventional coaxial or microwave radio relay link involves large number of repeaters. Obviously, as the number of repeaters increases thereliability is degraded. Also the cost of the systems goes up.If two stations A & B, located long distance apart, are linked by coaxial system then thesignals are attenuated as they travel along cable. So the signal must be amplified &equalized at a number of repeaters in between. The repeater spacing depends upon numbersof circuit to be provided and the type of cable used. Typically repeaters are required at 9Km for 4 MHz & 1.5 Km for 60MHz system. If linked by microwave system the signal istransmitted as a link of sight beam. Intermediate repeaters are needed to compensate forfree space loss & delay equalization. The repeaters spacing are mainly limited by clearancefor line of sight.Microwave link require fewer repeaters than coaxial system. Typical spacing is 30 to 50Km for microwave links.If the antenna height of the repeaters could be increase to have more clearance for linesight, the numbers of microwave repeaters because as the number of repeaters increase itresults into
Poor system performance.
Low reliability
High costLarge area for communication would be covered if the height of the microwave repeatercould be increased sufficiently and virtually by putting it about on artificial earth satellitein the space.By using Satellite all this drawbacks can be removed. Satellite coves about 1/3 part of earth surface. So the signals can be transmitted at a vide area of the earth.
Working of Satellite communication:
A satellite communication system has number of earth stations. At transmitting stationsthe base band or other incoming signal is then beamed up to the satellite repeater through atransmit antenna.The uplink RF signals is transmitted to the satellite through a high power amplifier, thetransmitted signal is received by the earth station at a RF, which is different from formerto avoid interference between the amplified uplink signal and the downlink to the groundcoverage area.The process of down converting in the satellite is performed by a number of units called transponders.In a similar way the signals transmitted by the earth stations B to earth station A. This ishow earth stations A & B communicate simultaneously with each other. In fact, signalstransmitted by the earth station are broadcast by the satellite to its area of coverage & not just directed to other with which to communicate. The microwave signal returned fromsatellite are so weak that the special equipment, called LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER isnecessary to boost – up the information which keeping the unwanted noise to be minimum.The signals are then sent to the received equipment, which recovers the base band, thesignal is then sent through the terrestrial link to its destination. Thus a communicationsatellite is essential a microwave repeater. It receives the energy, beamed up at it by thehighly directive antennas at the earth stations, shifts it by a couple of GHz & returns it tothe earth in broadcast mode to cover a large area on the earth.
A brief history of space communication
The idea of radio transmission through space was first conceived in 1911. In 1945 Britishauthor-scientist Arthur C Clarke suggested the use of a geosynchronous earth satellite forthe purpose. His assumption of a manned space station was later revised by a US engineer,J R Pierce, in April 1955, who was also the first one to analyze unmanned communicationsatellites. This idea later led to the great success of satellite communications.The first artificial satellite "SPUTNIK I" was launched by the erstwhile USSR, in 1957.This began a series of space initiatives by USA and USSR.The first satellite communication experiment was the US government's project SCORE(Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment), which launched a satellite onDecember 18, 1958. This satellite circled the earth in an elliptical orbit and retransmittedmessages recorded on a magnetic tape. It lasted for about 13 days after which the batteriesran out!!The US Army Signal Corp's Courier IB, launched in October 1960, lasted for about 17days. It could handle typewriter data and voice and facsimile messages.It was a balloon, Echo 1, launched in August 1960, which led American Telephone &Telegraph Company (AT&T) to build Telstar. Communication tests carried out byreflecting radio signals from Echo 1's surface were completely successful.Telstar, launched on July 1962 was the first active satellite with a microwave receiver andtransmitter to transmit live television and telephone conversations across the Atlantic. Itwas turned off in February 1963. Successive initiatives include NASA's Relay 1 satellitewas launched in elliptical orbit in December 1962 and Syncom 2, the first synchronouscommunication satellite was launched in July 1963.In 1964 a global initiative was undertaken leading to the formation of INTELSAT, whichhas been one of the major driving forces for the large scale commercial exploitation of satellite technology for communications. Since then there has been no looking back.

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