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Slum Rehablitiaion Report

Slum Rehablitiaion Report

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Published by shivpreetsandhu

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: shivpreetsandhu on May 23, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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CHAPTER -IIntroduction
The definition of a slum varies from one form to another depending on the background or country from which an individual comes from. Someone from a rich country may defineslums as old run down buildings, whereas someone from a poor country will define slums asun-serviced haphazard constructions . The universal definition of a slum as found in thedictionary is said to be a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housingand filth . Slums are seen as a purely physical phenomenon. Slums are populated by twogroups of people, the poor and the strangers . Since in slums there is a lack of cleanliness,serious diseases can spread easily and quickly. Slum inhabitants go through many problems, afew being they lack of public transit, constant migration, lack of water, no sewage or solidwaste facilities, pollution, and shelter shortages . They also face poor ventilation, due to a lack of windows and electricity. They also tend to establish homes on unused land that is usually privately owned or government owned land. Therefore a concise definition for a slum would be a crowded urban area, marked by poverty, where living conditions are very bad and in poor condition .
Defining and measuring slums
The problem with measuring slums start with the lack of an agreed definition. As a result ,enumeration of slums has not yet been incorporated within mainstream monitoringinstruments, such as natural population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and globalsurveys. Some surveys provide proxies or related variables ‘such as proportion of unauthorized housing’ pr ‘proportion of squatters’ . Participatory poverty assessments in leastdeveloped countries (LDCs) generally provide only qualitative information on urban poverty.The generic definition suggest that a slum is :…..a contiguous settlement where the inhabitants are characterized as having inadequatehousing and basic seervices. A slum is often not recognized by the public authorities as anintegral or equal part of the city.Other similar definitions are provided in many policy documents; for example the citiesalliance action plan describes slum as follows:1
Slums are neglected part of cities where housing and living conditions are appalingly poor.Slums range from high density, squalid central city tenements to spontaneous squatter settlements without legal recognition of rights, sprawling at the edge of cities. Slums havevarious names, favelas, kampungs. Bidonvilles, tugorios yet share the same miserableconditions.These general definition met the common perception of what a slum is ; yet, as it stands ,they are not associated with operational definitions that would enable one to ascertain whether or not a particular area is a slum.In practice what has happened when it has been necessary to operationalize the concept is thatareas have been designated specifically as slums, usually by planners making impromptusurveys or following popular usage. This was the case during the Housing Reform in U.K.and subsequently in many other countries.More recently, definitions developed in 1993 inIndia use housing conditions and availability of facilities as the main basis for defining areasas slums- areas with dense, poorly built or mostly temporary housing, with inadequatesanitary and water facilities.Clearly, it would be better for a number of purposes to have a more universal and objectivedefinition- particularly when global measurement and MDG targets are involved. Yet, themost important indicators associated with UN-Habitat work- slums, insecure tenure, and poverty- are terms that do not have clear or universally agreed definitions.Efforts to propose a more ‘quantitative’ definition of slums have been only recently started,not only because of divergent opinions as to what constitutes the key determinants of slums, but because of several features of the concept:(i)Slums are too complex to define according to one single parameter.(ii)Slums are a relative concept and what is considered as a slum in one city will beregarded as adequate in another city- even in the same country.(iii)Local variations in slums are too wide to define to define a iuniversally applicablecriteria.(iv)Slums change too fast to render any criterion valid for a reasonable long duration of time.2
(v)The spatial natire of slums means that the size of particular slum areas is vulnerable tochanges in jurisdiction or spatial aggregation.What is agreed is that slums like poverty, and secure tenure are multi dimensional in nature.Some of the characteristics of slum such as access to physical services or density, can bneclearly defined, and others, such as social capital, cannot. Even with well defined indicators,measurement can be very problematic, and acceptable benchmarks are not easy to establish.3

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