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Reliability Techique for Sustainable Dredging

Reliability Techique for Sustainable Dredging

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Published by: Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju on May 23, 2010
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09/14/2013

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Environmental Risk and Reliability for Sustainable DredgingO. Sulaiman a, A.H. Saharuddinb , Ab. Saman Ab Kaderc, W. B. Wan Nikda,b,d Maritime Technology Department, University Malaysia Terengganuc Marine Technology Department, University Teknologi Malaysiao. sulaiman@umt.edu.my, sdin@umt..edu.my, abdsaman@fkm.utm.my, niksani@umt.edu.myAbstractDredging work and placement leads to changes to the environment. Environmental impact assessment has been employed to address these changes. Risk assessment which rarely covers large part of uncertainty associated with dredging work is captured in EIA. EIA focus on fixed and inflexible standards which have led to postdredging failures. This makes it necessary to do critical and dependability scientific risk analysis that quantitatively determine whether the changes are serious or irreversible. This paper discuss the new internationally recognized philosophy of risk analysis or formal and system risk based design that provide opportunity to focus on real concern of the dredging project. The paper will discuss case study of failed project based on conventional EIA and best practice performance of systemic risk base design approach.Keywords:Keywords: Environment, Dredge, Risk, Sutainability, Decision Support 1.Introduction1.0 IntroductionDredging is process of digging under water for purpose to maintain the depth innavigation channels. Dredging is required to develop and maintain navigation infrastructure, reclamation, maintenance of river flow, beach nourishment, and environmental remediation of contaminated sediments. Study on environmental impact of dredging is not new and recently there is concerned about balance between theneed to dredge, economic viability, social technical approval and adequate environmental protection can be challenge. Various methods has been implemented for management of dredging activities, but choose in the best practice approach is also a bog challenge that require high level of understanding of the technical andeconomical aspects of the dredging process. input from ecological experts and dredging specialists. Community participation from port authorities, regulatory agencies, the dredging industry and non-governmental organisations such as environmentalists and private sector consultancies..2. The Need for and dredging requirementDredging is the excavation, lifting and transport of underwater sediments and soils for the construction and maintenance of ports and waterways, dikes and otherinfrastructures, for reclamation, maintenance of river flow, beach nourishment,to extract mineral resources, particularly sand and gravel, for use for examplein the construction industry, and for the environmental remediation of contaminated sediments.Globally, many hundreds of millions of cubic meters (m3) of sediments are dredged annually, with most of this volume being handled in coastal areas. A portion of this total represents capital dredging which involves the excavation of sediments to create ports, harbors, and navigable waterways. Maintenance dredging sust
 
ains sufficient water depths for safe navigation by periodic removal of sedimentaccumulated due to natural and human-induced sedimentation. Maintenance dredging may vary from an almost continuous activity throughout the year to an infrequent activity occurring only once every few years. Dredging activities offer social, economic and environmental benefits to the whole community. Hydrography chartand bathymetric map are used as guidance to vision of discrete bottom of water.Vigilant is requiring for the bottom as the, they are proned to sudden change leading to shoaling due to flood or drought. Survey of a navigation channel to locate dredging area done through drawing of isolines, or lines connecting points of equal depth, on the map so that captains and ships' pilots can get an idea of the "hills and valleys" underwater [1,3].Remote sensing equipment is used by hydrographers
’ on top of the water of the water to see the bottom of the channel. Isoline are drowned based on statistical data record for accuracy and reducing risk of missing important underwater features, like rocks or shoals. Dredgers: dredger is a machine that scoops or sucks sediments from under the water. There are a few different types of dredgers, thethree main types of dredges are mechanical dredges, hydraulic dredges, and airlift dredges. Mechanical dredges are often used in areas protected from waves andsea swells. They work well around docks and shallow channels, but not usually inthe ocean. Hydraulic dredges work by sucking a mixture of dredged material andwater from the channel bottom. There are two main types of hydraulic dredges - the cuter head pipeline dredge and the hopper dredges. Airlift dredges are special-use dredges that raise material from the bottom of the waterway by air pressure. Split hull hopper dredges are self-powered, so they can move to the dredgingand disposal site by themselves. Figure 1 shows typical hydrographic survey of achannel.Figure1: Typical hydrography survey Channel condition survey for a channel, 53mdeep, the survey lines are at 50-foot intervals. Shaded areas are shoals.(PTP, 2008)Dredge material: Dredging is necessary to maintain waterways channel. Nearly 400million cubic yards of material is dredged each year. Consequently, about 400 million cubic yards of material must be placed in approved disposal sites or elseused for another environmentally acceptable purpose. Sustainable disposal of dredge material is very imperative as it ends up saving a lot of money and maintains reliability and efficiency use of resources advantage of sustainable beneficial disposal are [2,3]:i.Cost saving on money spent on finding and managing disposal sites.ii.It avoids habitat and ecological impacts that disposal may cause.iii.It saves capacity in existing disposal sites.iv.It can be a low-cost alternative to purchasing expensive fill for construction projects.v.It can be used to enhance or restore habitat. 
 
3. Environmental requirement of dredging projectThe tendering of a dredging contract typically occurs after a full engineering design has been completed (i.e. after the planning and design phase). However, for other types of contracting mechanisms (e.g., design-build), the tendering of contract may occur early in the overall project process, thus requiring the Contractor to perform much of the evaluation and design work himself. Table 1 shows phases of dredging project and the risk control components.Table 1 Dredging project phases and risk componentsProject PhasePlanning and design ConstructionPost constructionImpactNeed for dredging is translated into project designPhysical and biological impacts will depends on project specification.Projectconstruction will cause temporary or permanents physical change,Advert effect should be mitigated through best practice methodPhysical changemay result to long term environmental effects that should be mitigated by appropriate project design , planning and executionScopeFunctional requirementsConceptual designPotential environmental impactsFinal design and specificationsTendering and contract awardConstruction methods and equipments’ selectionMonitoring and feedbackInfrastructures in service and their may have additionalmode of impactLong term monitoring and feedback may be needed to evaluate RCOEnvironmental componentsPlanning and design decisionRCO to prevent or reduce environmental impact if of the whole projectConstruction decisionRCO to prevent environment impact cause by physical changeCertain RCO mayapply to mitigation of future impactsThe planning and design phase begins with defining overall functional requirements to meet the project objectives. This involves evaluating potential environmental impacts and any regulatory constraints, and concludes with preparing projects specifications. The planning and design phase is used to identify risk areas and risk control option in advance to help protect the environment during dredging, transport, and disposal activities and subsequent monitoring and possible remedial actions. Elements of project formulation include:i.Functional Requirementsii.Conceptual Designiii.Regulatory Frameworkiv.Baseline Environmentv.Stakeholder Inputvi.Potential impact Review the baseline condition as a consequence of construction and post-project activities.vii.Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)viii.Risk control optionix.Prepare Final Project Design and SpecificationsA final design addresses all major elements of the project: engineering design,environmental management, construction sequencing, and construction management.The specification’s level of detail will depend on the type of contract, the complexity of the project, and the experience with dredging of both the project proponent and contractor(s). Figure 2 shows example operational disposal control measure to limit impact of dredge disposal.a bFigure 2: a. uncontrolled disposal, b. control disposal (PIANC)

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