Inﬂation without a beginning: a null boundary proposal
School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
(Dated: February 7, 2008)We develop our recent suggestion that inﬂation may be made past eternal, so that there is no initialcosmological singularity or “beginning of time”. Inﬂation with multiple vacua generically approachesa steady-state statistical distribution of regions at these vacua, and our model follows directly frommaking this distribution hold at all times. We ﬁnd that this corresponds (at the semi-classical level)to particularly simple cosmological boundary conditions on an inﬁnite null surface near which thespacetime looks de Sitter. The model admits an interesting arrow of time that is well-deﬁned andconsistent for all physical observers that can communicate, even while the statistical descriptionof the entire universe admits a symmetry that includes time-reversal. Our model suggests, butdoes not require, the identiﬁcation of antipodal points on the manifold. The resulting “elliptic” deSitter spacetime has interesting classical and quantum properties. The proposal may be generalizedto other inﬂationary potentials, or to boundary conditions that give semi-eternal but non-singularcosmologies.
PACS numbers: 98.80.Cq, 04.20.Gz, 04.62.+v
The ancient philosophical question of whether the uni-verse is ﬁnite or inﬁnite in time, and whether time “hada beginning”, entered the domain of scientiﬁc study dur-ing the 20th century with the development of generallyrelativistic cosmologies in which the universe is homoge-neous and expanding, as observed on the largest accessi-ble scales.Chief among these cosmologies, and representing oppo-site answers to the question of the universe’s beginning,were the classical Big-Bang and Steady-State. As FRWmodels, both are based on some form of the “Cosmolog-ical Principle” (CP) that the large-scale statistical prop-erties of the universe admit spatial translational and ro-tational symmetries. The models diﬀer greatly, however,in their time evolution. In the Big-Bang, the propertiesof the universe evolve in a ﬁnite time from a dense, singu-lar initial state. In contrast, the Steady-State universe issaid to obey the “Perfect Cosmological Principle” (PCP)in that it admits, in additional to spatial translationaland rotational symmetries, a time-translation symmetry.Since all times are equivalent, there can be no “beginningof time”, and the universe is inﬁnite in duration.Unlike their philosophical predecessors, the Big-Bangand Steady-State model were observationally distinguish-able, and astronomical evidence eventually turned nearlyall cosmologists away from the Steady-State. Moreover,theorems proven within General Relativity showed thatthe classical singularity of the Big-Bang cosmology was
robust and could not be avoided by relaxing simplify-ing assumptions such as that of homogeneity. Thus theidea of a temporally ﬁnite universe with a singular initialepoch came to dominate cosmology.
Attention has sincefocused on how this primordial singularity (where somepresently unknown theory of quantum gravity presum-ably applies) could give rise to a classical “initial” statethat could evolve into the observed universe.The required “initial” classical state, however, seemedrather special: the universe had to have been extremelyﬂat, and statistically homogeneous (i.e. obey the CP)on scales larger than the horizon size. The theory of inﬂation was devised and widely accepted as a solutionto this problem of a special initial state: given inﬂation,a ﬂat, homogeneous universe (with the necessary Gaus-sian scale-invariant density ﬂuctuations) is an attractor.That is, within some inﬂating region of ﬁxed, ﬁnite phys-ical size, the CP holds more and more precisely withtime. What is perhaps more surprising and less widelyappreciated, however, is that in generic inﬂation modelsthe universe also comes to obey, with ever-greater preci-sion, the
Cosmological Principle. This occurs be-cause inﬂation is generically “semi-eternal”: rather thanending globally at some time, inﬂation always continuesin some regions, and the universe globally approaches aquasi-steady-state distribution of inﬂating and thermal-ized regions, the statistical description of which becomes
There have been a number of proposals for avoiding a beginningof time, but generally these involve either continuing throughthe cosmological singularity by invoking quantum gravitationaleﬀects, or modifying GR at the classical level. Our approach aimsto develop a non-singular cosmology without appeal to eitherpossibility.