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6ht929jcbx89j preatomic

6ht929jcbx89j preatomic

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Published by williamtopping
A well-done study which speaks for itself.
A well-done study which speaks for itself.

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Published by: williamtopping on May 31, 2008
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A “Pre-Atomic Era” Sediment Profile and Gamma Analysis from Lake County, Michigan
.William ToppingPrincipal Investigator, NSF Physics-9986999solar_crisis@yahoo.com---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In a series of
tests undertaken with samples from geographically separated“sediment profiles” at
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
(LBNL) in conjunction with a
National Science Foundation 
grant (Physics-9986999), anomalies at depth were noted whichspecifically included the presence of Cesium 137. The sedimentation and likely factors forpercolation for the “fallout marker” 137Cs were at apparent odds with the discovery of that isotopeat depth in parent or “C” sediments (more specifically, at about the B-C interface) at widelyseparated locations in North America. Recent research has indicated that there was a neutronevent in prehistory, and that its “signatures” at depth in sediments have been misinterpreted asmarkers from “Atomic-era” fallout (1).In a methodology constructed to
test the hypothesis 
that “
137Cs at depth in C sediments is not exclusively the result of fallout from atomic testing 
," an area that has been “capped fromfallout” since the late 1930's was sampled. The location is in Michigan in Lake County, specificallyin Township 18 North, Range 12 West, Section 15, Cherry Valley Township, and more specificallythe NE corner of the NE corner of the NE corner. At this particular location, George Venner ofMidland, Michigan (grandfather of the author) bought 120 acres on 15 June, 1938 from AgnesPomorski and had the deed recorded on 25 August, 1938 (2).At the time, there was a “
” cabin on the land. Venner added onto theexisting cabin by installing a “cement foundation” to the rear or “west side,” but left the originalcabin intact and made improvements (3). The pre-existing cabin, 12 feet by 18 feet, wasconstructed with no foundation but rather was a simple wood-framed structure built on woodenbeams. Venner covered the roof and sides with corrugated steel panels that intruded into thesands around the small cabin which effectively sealed it from later contamination from fallout in thepost 1945-era. Venner died as the result of a traffic accident on November 2, 1940 (4).Therefore, the sands underneath this small cabin had been protected and capped from
from“at least” 1940 until 1993 when the land was sold by heirs to the
Michigan Department of Natural Resources 
and the structures removed with “minimal disturbance” of landforms because of vastarchaeological resources in the area. The sands underneath the small original cabin werecompletely unaltered in any way during removal of the structures (5), and the only evidence ofprior disturbance of any sort was deposited fecal matter of animals such as raccoons that hadcrawled through a small hole and lived (periodically) under the cabin.The terrace this location is located at is flat, but to the south there is a rise which raises thepossibility of runoff waters contaminating the site, presumably primarily “after” the structure wasremoved. Since percolation is primarily “down,” but considering the possibility of recent runoffcontamination of the sands, a sediment profile was taken from what was the “original” northeastcorner of the “interior” of the cabin which would have been least exposed to recent runoff once thestructure was removed. The sediment profile was undertaken on June 20, 2001, after permissionfrom the
Michigan Department of Natural Resources 
was obtained (6), and it revealed some minordisturbance from Depression-era activities probably in clearing the area to construct the originalcabin, but also revealed a completely undisturbed and typical sediment profile of original
parent sediments common in this geographic area (7). There was no evidence whatsoeverof either rodent or tree disturbance of the sediments and the different sediment horizons were veryclear (visual presentation). Large samples of sediment were taken at intervals of 5 cm to a depth of~ 15 cm into the basal
horizon which appeared at ~ 60 cm in depth, with the exception of thefirst layer of rapid growth humic material on the surface which is attributable to the “fertilizer”deposited by animals that used the cabin crawlspace as living quarters. In that instance, 10 cm ofthe very modern (post-1993) humic material was bagged and tested.
Some evidence of about 10 cm of "Depression-era" disturbance and small amounts ofcharcoal were encountered in the first ~ 10 cm of the actual "sediment" underneath the recenthumic growth. It appeared that whoever built the cabin raked the area and cut some brush, andburned it. Sands were not reddened from heat. Below this was a very thin "A" horizon that istypical on the sandy sediments in this area. This layer of actual A was ~ 4 cm thick. Below was adistinct "B" horizon with typical brownish color/hue, and the consistency of the medium-sized, well-sorted grains suggested "wind-deposit" over some long period of time. At about 60 cm the B-Cinterface appeared where larger grains were well-sorted, some pebbles/gravels occurred, and thesediments were pale yellow to "whitish" in color/hue.At
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
, the system uses a 115% n-type HPGedetector in a low-BKG (background) environment. Data are acquired by an
software package, in the format of 16384-channel spectra covering an energy range from 20 to3600 KeV. For the results listed below, a 6" diameter by 6" high re-entrant beaker (
Marinelli Beaker 
) was used filled with sediment to one of several specific volumes. Some of the samplescompletely filled the container. Sample weights ranged from 1400 grams for the smallest volume to2700 grams for a sample that completely filled the container. All sediments were air-dried beforepacking into a counting container. Each sample was counted for about 48 hours to achieve thedesired statistical quality in results.In addition, a control test that utilized some fine sand, specifically "industrial quartz silicasand" (
Unimin Corporation 
) placed inside a tube of PVC plastic pipe ~ 120 cm long x ~ 5.5 mminterior diameter and capped with a PVC cap with small holes drilled in the bottom, was conducted.This sand was thoroughly moistened and compacted before it was topped with local humus toprovide a source of 137Cs, and also to replicate conditions normally encountered on typicallandforms in the test area. Uranium (uraninite powder) was added, as was a rich 40K source (
No Salt 
) and a source of thorium (
Quick Clip 
lantern mantles, Model #908M, reduced to ash). Wellwater (~ 60 feet deep, which eliminates the possibility of 137Cs from standard supplies) was usedto percolate isotopes downward. In 250 ml quantities over the course of two days, water wasadded to the column and the column was turned almost constantly during the procedure to ensureeven percolation. The reported average annual rainfall in Lake County, Michigan, from the years1961-1990 (
Oregon Climate Service 
webpage, data obtained from NOAA statistics) was 34-36inches. Runoff from melting snow was not calculated, but quantities of water were added tosimulate ~ 5 years of rainfall.
runs were conducted on 12 intervals of the column, eachcomposed of 10 cm of the full column (the plastic pipe was sawed at 10 cm intervals and therespective contents deposited into
bags).Attached are the following:
the "pre-Atomic era" sediment profile,
the table of
 results on this profile;
a graph illustrating the various isotopic concentrations in the full "pre-atomic" profile;
a graph illustrating the isotopic concentrations in only the original A-C horizonsthat had been "capped;"
a graph of the "B" horizon only which illustrates the 137Cs anomaly atdepth, with "decimals adjusted" to be able to see the proportions visually so comparison is easier
for instance, in the "column percolation control test" the first 10 cm interval gamma tested produced these proportions: U = 417 ppm, Th = 1.5 ppm, 40K = 0.72 "%." and 137Cs = 7.4 "cts/min-Kg;" since there was so much more U [as recorded] than the other isotopes, it is impossible to "see" the proportions unless decimals are adjusted; in the case of the "percolation test" the result for U was adjusted from 
for easier visual comparison, and the entire series was adjusted accordingly and in each case where this method for visual comparison was utilized it is so indicated and the "Y-1" axis in each graph is an automatic scale generated by the software as nothing more than a "convenience scale" to compare amounts,and that too is so indicated 
the table of
results for the "percolation control test;"
agraph of the
results for the full series in the "percolation control test;"
a graph of the
results for intervals
in the "percolation control test" which is provocative since itsuggests that in terms of "adhesion to and/or movement through fines" (small grains such as
silt/clay), 137Cs is "
less mobile 
" than other isotopes.To summarize, the evidence obtained from this study suggests that "humus" acts as a veryeffective barrier to the downward percolation of
isotopes which leads to the conclusion thatdeeply distributed isotopic concentrations must mean "much weathering" has taken place over asubstantial period of time. Also, this study with particular regard to 137Cs suggests that 137Cswhich is a "key indicator" of fallout is not as "mobile" as (and certainly not "more mobile than")other isotopes in terms of "downward" movement from percolation. For all practical purposes, thebulk of all isotopes did not move through the humus. The other isotopes were present at depth inthis case (column test), but only in very minor quantities, but still with some evidence of "verticaldeposition" from percolation, and to different degrees. A note of caution is in order in this case.The well water was "carbonate rich," and this may (or may not) have made a difference in terms ofisotopic/molecular adhesion to H2O "or" adhesion to the "very fine" grains of sand. With thatcautionary note, the results In this control test make it very difficult to explain the "spike" of 137Csat depth in the basal B horizon of the "pre-Atomic era profile" as having been caused by recent (~10 years) percolation from rains/melt.One of the hypothetical suggestions advanced in terms of the "column control" test was that"
everything percolated out 
" of the test column. Using a
counter (SOSNA-ANRI-01-02,
3 runs at one minute each and then averaged) the residual
activity on thewooden planks on the porch where the column rested was 0.87/sec. Under the porch where thepercolated water (with isotopes) had been deposited, the activity was ~ 0.57/sec whichcorresponds almost precisely to the "environmental
rate" in that exact location which hadbeen
tested (by the author) for months. In other words, there was some very minor depositof "radioactive control isotopes" at the control test site, but nothing in sufficient quantity at all toinvalidate the results.Based on the evidence presented, the rigor of the testing and high quality of the LBNL
results and associated interpretations/analysis by the author, there is an "isotopic anomalyat depth" in terms of 137Cs (
t 1/2 
= ~ 30 yrs) in basal B sediments, or at "about" the B-C interface,that Atomic-era "fallout" cannot explain. The anomaly appears to involve more than 137Cs(specifically, 238Pu, 239Pu and "depleted 235U"). An investigation into the genesis of "possibleongoing fissions" at depth is continuing and in short, the hypothesis first presented above is "notinvalidated" by these findings.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
References Cited: 
1. Firestone, Richard B. and Topping, William. Terrestrial Evidence for a Nuclear Catastrophe inPaleoindian Times.
Mammoth Trumpet 
16 (2): 9-16.2.
Liber 92
, page 549, Register of Deeds, Lake County, Michigan.3. William Topping, personal observations and knowledge.4.
Midland Daily News 
, November 2, 1940: 1, 3.5. Topping.6.
Michigan Department of Natural Resources 
, Cadillac FMU, permit number 5-2001.7. Boggs, S.,
Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 
(MacMillan, New York,1987), Easterbrook, D. J.,
Surface Processes and Landforms 
(MacMillan, New York, 1993),Birkeland, P. W.,
Soils and Geomorphology 
(Oxford University Press, New York, 1984).

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