is a column or set of columns that uniquely identifies the rest of the data in any givenrowA
is a column in a table where that column is a primary key of another table, whichmeans that any data in a foreign key column must have corresponding data in theother table where that column is the primary key
A Data field with same name but info does not match. (Occurs when DataRedundancy exists)
When application depends on Data structure and has no flexibility.
When a data item exists in several files (duplication) (Eliminated if usingNormalized data structure)
Data structures are defined separately from application programs.
Two-dimensional tables of data values = Table
Values cannot be broken down any further.
Values for attributes are drawn from a domain. Atomic set of attributes.Ex: Date, City, etc.
Several keys that act as a subject for primary key.
Combination of attributes (from candidate keys) that forms the primary key.
Candidate keys not chosen to be part of primary key.
No part of the primary key can be missing. "NOT NULL"
A foreign key must have applicable primary key in other table.
Data Warehousing The Fundamentals
Single, complete and consistent store of data obtained from various sources. It is usually madeof relational databases. It consists of:- A set of programs that extract data from an operational environment.- A database that maintains data warehouse data,- Systems that provide data to users.
The main function of a data warehouse is to give end-users faster, easier, and more directaccess to corporate data.
Data Warehouses are offline systems. Their information is not live and it is notcontinuously updated.- One of the big advantages of a warehouse implementation is its ability to store historical data.
In 1985 Codd proposed an informal set of twelve rules by which a database could be evaluated to seehow "relational" it is. Very few commercial databases exist which meet or satisfy all twelve rules.
The 12 rules are based on the following foundation rule.
For any system that is advertised as, or claims to be, a relational database management system, thatsystem must be able to manage databases entirely through its relational capabilities. In other words,the DBMS should not have to rely on non-relational methods in order to manage its data. The othertwelve rules are all implied in Rule 0, but it is easier to check for the other twelve individually than forthis general rule.
The information ruleAll information in a relational database is represented explicitly at the logical level and in exactly oneway - by values in tables. This includes data about the database itself. Data about the database itself is kept in a data dictionary.
The guaranteed access rule.Each and every datum (atomic value) in a relational database is guaranteed to be logically accessibleby resorting to a combination of table name, primary key value, and column value. If a databaseconforms to rule 2, every atomic value should be easily retrievable. An atomic value is the smallestunit of value in a relational database. In a relational database, an atomic value can always be