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WAC Regional Newsletter May-June 2007

WAC Regional Newsletter May-June 2007

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Published by UN-HABITAT Nepal

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Published by: UN-HABITAT Nepal on May 24, 2010
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Tigni in Nepal Improves Water & Sanitation Services byRehabilitating Infrastructure
May - June 2007Volume III, Issue 3
Kumari Selja
, Hon'bleMinister of State (IC)for Housing and UrbanPoverty Alleviation,Govt. of India wasunanimously elected asPresident of the UN-HABITAT GoverningCouncil for a two year term. The 21st Sessionof the GoverningCouncil of the UN-HABITAT was held atNairobi from 16-20 April 2007. The theme was on "SustainableUrbanization: Local Action for Urban Pov-erty Reduction withEmphasis on Financeand Planning". This isthe highest recogni-tion, till date, India hasreceived at UN-HABITAT.
Inside this issue:
Strategic Initiatives forInclusive Development inIndia during 11th Plan
Coca-Cola - UN-HABITATPartnership in India&Nepal
Pro-poor Bottled Drinking Water in Lalitpur, Nepal
Community-based WSS forUrban poor in Vietnam
RTI Act on Citizens’ Partici-pation in WSS Projects
A Bi-monthly Newsletter of the Water for Asian Cities (WAC) Programme
Problem of water and poor sani-tation has been escalating everin Nepal especially in urbanareas, where population is risingrapidly with very less improve-ments in the infrastructures. Thestory of Tigni, one of the poorestsettlements with 809 populationsin 146 households in Kathmanduvalley, was not different. Waterpollution and scarcity waschronic in Tigni. The muddy andslippery road with poor condi-tion of existing drainage wasvery inconvenient for pedestri-ans, especially during rainy sea-son. Absence of surface drain-age and littering debris andwastes was polluting the sur-rounding environment and incor-porating probability of diseaseoutbreaks. People, mainlywomen, were exposing them-selves in the smoky environmentusing traditional smoky stoves.Many households were deprivedfrom toilet facility and open defe-cation was quite common. Morethan 88 percent of the commu-nity dwellers were living underpoverty line.Today, it’s different. Tigni haschanged its face. Problem ofwater and poor sanitation thatused to be a part has been leftbehind in the past. The settlementis improving gradually in its in-frastructure as well as practicingto upgrade economic capacitythrough micro-credit savingschemes.Under Water for Asian Cities(WAC) Programme of UN-HABITAT, Centre for IntegratedUrban Development (CIUD) car-ried out a detailed study of thearea under poverty mapping andwater & environmental sanitationimprovement plan preparation in2005. Based on the findings ofthe study, CIUD in collaborationwith Madhyapur Thimi Munici-pality and partnership with localcommunity implemented the wa-ter and sanitation activities withthe technical and financial sup-port of UN-HABITAT and finan-cial support of Water Aid Nepal(WAN).Under this project, water qualityand quantity was improved byrehabilitating the existing welland by fitting two hand pumps toit. This has saved well water frompollution and has made it easierto draw water benefiting 169people directly. Students andteachers of the local school aresafe from the consumption ofmunicipal water with high con-tent of chlorine, after addition ofaeration (de-chlorination) systembefore the collection tank at theschool.The roads and neighborhood isdry and convenient for the pe-destrians because 600 mitrespermanent storm water drainagewith small and large manholeshas been constructed and soakpit promoted. People seems veryfelicitous having plenty of cleanspace for social interactions, sunbathing and play ground forchildren as the roads and path-ways are paved with brick on986 square meters area andconstructed 300 mitres sidedrains. The project installed 35improved cooking stoves andinhabitants, especially localwomen, were also trained onmaking it. It is gradually improv-ing the in-house environment.The trained women are promot-ing these stoves.Targeting to meet 100 percenttoilet coverage, 35 toilets wereconstructed. Although, threehouses have no toilet yet be-cause of unavailability of space,open defecation is no more inpractice today.The project has also supported toinitiate three women’s micro-credit saving groups to buildeconomic capability for overalldevelopment in the poor settle-ment. These groups were pro-vided two skill trainings. At pre-sent, some members are produc-ing liquid soap and few othersare building improved stoves togenerate money.The project has also added fuelon developing gender balanceby proving opportunities andpromoting women to participatein various awareness pro-grammes and capacity buildingtrainings.
Providing Essential Public Services tothose large parts of the poor populationwho are still excluded from these is a keyelement of the strategy for the 11th Fiveyear Plan of the Government of India.The Approach Paper to the 11th Fiveyear Plan states that there continue to belarge gaps in the most basic servicessuch as clean drinking water and accessto basic sanitation facilities. The poor donot have even minimum access. The Na-tional Development Council recognizesthat the provision of basic services suchas clean drinking water and basic sanita-tion are essential part of the developmentstrategy for inclusive and sustained long-term growth.
Integrated development of slumsfor providing basic services andother civic amenities
The quality of life for the bulk of urbanpeople in India, particularly for the poor,means living with many avoidable hard-ships. They do not even have access toclean drinking water. Urban renewal isimperative for both efficiency and equity,since cities provide substantial econo-mies of agglomeration and are thegrowth engines of the economy.In order to cope with massive problemsthat have emerged as a result of rapidurban growth the Jawaharlal Nehru Na-tional Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM) was launched by the govern-ment on 3rd December, 2005 for aseven-year period beginning 2005-06. JNNURM is meant to provide improvedurban services. It envisages urban re-newal projects in a mission mode ap-proach.The objectives of the JNNURM are to: (a)give focused attention to integrated de-velopment of infrastructure services in 63selected cities; (b) establish linkage be-tween asset creation and asset manage-ment through reforms needed for longterm sustainability; (c) ensure adequatefunds to meet the deficiencies in urbaninfrastructural services; (d) achieveplanned development of cities; (e) scaleup civic amenities and provision of utili-ties; (f) put special focus on urban re-newal of old city areas; (g) provide basicservices to the urban poor including secu-rity of tenure at affordable prices, im-proved housing, water supply, and sani-tation, and (h) ensuring delivery of otherexisting universal services of the govern-ment for education, health and socialsecurity.The selected cities are one million pluscities, state capitals and places of histori-cal, religious, or tourist importance. TheSub-mission on Urban Infrastructure andGovernance, administered by the Minis-try of Urban Development, is chargedwith infrastructure projects relating towater supply and sanitation, sewerage,solid waste management, road network,urban transport and redevelopment ofold city areas. The Sub-mission on BasicServices to the Urban Poor, administeredby the Ministry of Urban Employmentand Poverty Alleviation has been en-trusted with integrated development ofslums through projects for providing shel-ter, basic services, and other relatedcivic amenities. The 11th Plan will bemaking substantial provision of fundsunder the JNNURM so that the momen-tum of urban reform linked to infrastruc-ture creation really takes off.
Citizen Participation for Solid Waste Management
The increasing generation of solid wasteis a growing problem in all cities in In-dia. The Planning Commission of Indiarecognizes that uncollected garbage notonly causes diseases but it is also visuallyugly. Dumping garbage into landfills isnot an attractive option in the landscarce cities and should be minimized.Most industrial countries now requiretheir citizens to segregate wastes athome into recyclable products. Whilerecycling is done by rag pickers in India,their lives can be made less unpleasant ifcitizens sort
out organic and inorganicwaste and dispose of organic waste inlocal compost or vermiculture pits. Citiesmust be encouraged to evolve systemswith citizen participation for segregationof waste at point of origin, maximizingrecycling & safe disposal of the rest.
Page 2May - June 2007
India Plans Strategic Initiatives for Inclusive Development during EleventhPlan for Providing Basic Services
India Sri Lanka China Vietnam
Infant Mortality
(Per 1000 live births)60(2003)13(2003)30(2003)19(2003)
One year olds fully immunized with measles (%)
Population with Sustainable Access toImproved Sanitation (%)
Under-five mortality (Per 1000 live births)
Births attended by skilled birth attendants (%)
Maternal Mortality
(per 100,000 deliveries)407(adjusted 2000)92(adjusted 2000)56(adjusted 2000)130(adjusted 2000)
Source: Approach Paper to the 11th Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Govt. of India
Page 3Volume III, Issue 3
Clean Water for All—The StrategicPlan Framework
 Water-borne infections hamper absorp-tion of food even when intake is suffi-cient. Clean drinking water is, therefore,vital to reduce the incidence of diseaseand to check malnutrition. The 10th FiveYear Plan (2002-2007) target of provid-ing potable drinking water to all villagesin India has not been achieved. UnderBharat Nirman (a new programme forrural reconstruction), it is now planned tocover the 55,067 uncovered habitationsin 4 years (2005-09). Rural Water Sup-ply is, however, beset with the problemof sustainability, maintenance, and waterquality. Thus though more than 95%coverage was achieved prior to BharatNirman, 0.28 million out of the 1.422million habitations in the country, haveslipped back from fully covered to par-tially covered status. Another 0.217 mil-lion habitations have problems with thequality of water; about 60,000 habita-tions face serious problems of salinity orarsenic and fluoride contamination.These habitations will also be taken upunder Bharat Nirman. The 11th Plan willemphasize full and timely realization ofthe Bharat Nirman targets.
‘Providing clean drinking water for all by 2009 and ensuring that there are no slip-backs by the end of the 11th Plan is among the monitorable Socio- Economic Targets of the 11th Plan’ 
The 11th Plan will also address issues ofsustainability by moving away whereverpossible from ground water to surfacewater resources. Where alternatesources do not exist or are not cost effec-tive, ground water recharge measureswill be insisted upon in the vicinity of theproject.
11th Plan to encourage commu-nity owned & managed projects
The Eleventh Plan proposes to moveaway from state implemented and man-aged projects to encourage communityowned and managed projects, like theSwajaldhara Programme. In the 10thPlan, Swajaldhara had a limited provi-sion of 20% of the allocation of the Ac-celerated Rural Water Supply Pro-gramme (ARWSP). It will need to be upscaled so that more and more schemesare community managed, reducing themaintenance burden and responsibilityof the state.
Focused IEC campaign for in-crease in sanitation coverage
Lack of sanitation is directly linked to anumber of waterborne diseases. It is nowgenerally acknowledged that unless100% coverage of the community isachieved and proper solid waste man-agement carried out, health indicatorswill not show significant improvement.Besides, toilets are essential for the dig-nity and safety of girls and women.Rural sanitation coverage was only 1%in the 1980s. With the launch of theCentral Rural Strategic Initiatives for In-clusive Development Sanitation Pro-gramme in 1986, the coverage im-proved to 4% in 1988 and then to 22%in 2001. The programme was modifiedas Total Sanitation Campaign in 1999changing the earlier supply driven, highsubsidy and departmentally executedprogramme to a low subsidy, demanddriven one, with emphasis on hygieneeducation. Five hundred and forty dis-tricts are covered under this programmeand the population coverage is expectedto increase to about 35% by the end ofthe 10th Plan.The subsidy regime in the current pro-gramme is only for Below Poverty Line(BPL) families. For full coverage to beachieved, however, Above Poverty Linefamilies will have to be motivated toswitch over from open defecation to useof toilets. The Information, Education,and Communication (IEC) campaign will,therefore, receive increased attention inthe 11th Plan. A solid waste manage-ment component is being included in theprogramme. These measures coupledwith a focused IEC campaign shouldsignificantly increase sanitation coveragein the 11th Plan.Steps are also being taken to link ruralsanitation with the rural health mission.The Nirmal Gram Puraskar, a rewardscheme for 100% open defecation freecommunities has been a motivating fac-tor and is picking up momentum as canbe seen from the number of communitiescompeting for the Puraskar.
With sufficient allocation of funds in the 11th Plan, the MDG goal for sani- tation can be met by 2010, and full coverage achieved between 2012 and 2015.
The strategy of inclusive growth pro-posed in the approach paper can com-mand broad based support only ifgrowth is seen to demonstrably bridgedivides and avoid exclusion or marginali-zation of large segments of the popula-tion in India. These divides manifestthemselves in various forms: between thehaves and the have-nots; between ruraland urban areas; between the employedand the under/unemployed; betweendifferent states, districts and communities;and finally between genders. Suchmarked inequalities are a matter of con-cern and, in some cases even shame.The 11th Plan has to ensure that thegrowth process helps to bridge thesedivides.
Community-based Water andSanitation Project in Peri-Urban Area of Siddhipur, Kathmandu
Siddhipur Water & Sanitation Users Com-mittee has constructed a new water supplysystem in Siddhipur, which consists of anew intake water treatment system, a distri-bution network and a pro-poor tariff sys-tem. More than 150 households have con-nected private taps to their homes and theusers’ committee is getting many requestsfor connections everyday. To improve thesanitation situation of the area, 100 ECO-SAN toilets, one toilet with communal sep-tic tank, 14 other toilets with septic tanks,186 improved pit are being set up. Simi-larly, 1km of drainage have been laid and1100 square meter of pavement havebeen brick paved. In addition, traditionalwater sources like wells & ponds have alsobeen rehabilitated under this project. EN-PHO has also organized various capacitybuilding programmes in support of thisproject under WAC Programme in Nepal.

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