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WAC News Dec 2005

WAC News Dec 2005

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Published by UN-HABITAT Nepal

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Published by: UN-HABITAT Nepal on May 24, 2010
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use their powers and responsi-bilities, make it difficult to dealwith the many problems facingour cities.This Urban Renewal Mission isdesigned to assist city govern-ments in improving property taxcollection and bring user chargeto the levels that cover at leastoperating and maintenancecosts and change their account-ing methods. The Mission ismeant to bring in transparencyin local budget making, as alsoa higher degree of communityparticipation in decision-makingprocesses. The success of theMission will depend on its abil-ity to enlist the support of alarge number of partners andstakeholders.The Prime Minister urged theMinistry of Urban EmploymentOn December 3, 2005, thePrime Minister Dr. ManmohanSingh launched the JawaharlalNehru National Urban RenewalMission (JNNURM). On thisoccasion, he said that an in-creasing share of India’s popu-lation now lived in cities. Indiawas now poised to have nearlyfifty per cent of its populationliving in cities by the earlier partof the present century. Withurbanization comes the need toinvest in infrastructure and im-prove the quality of life in ourcities. The Jawaharlal NehruNational Urban Renewal Mis-sion is a city-based programme.It seeks to build the capacity ofIndia’s cities for management. A major failure of city govern-ance has been the inability ofULBs to address the needs of thepoor - basic services like drink-ing water supply, sanitation,housing and social services arenot available to an increasingshare of urban population.Cities need to develop a long-term planning framework. JNNURM provides an agendaof reform to enable urban localbodies to look ahead. The prob-lems of inadequate service andinfrastructure levels, of inade-quate investment in them, andthe non-availability of adequateland and housing are muchdeeper. Presently, our legalsystems, our systems of workand procedures, and the inabil-ity of local bodies to effectively
Volume II - Issue 02
 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban RenewalMission launched
December 2005
Water Systems in AsianCities2WDM Strategy for Bhopaland Gwalior 3Planning Workshop for WATSAN Classrooms4
“(The) water crisis islargely our own making.It has resulted not fromthe natural limitations ofthe water supply or lackof financing and appro-priate technologies, eventhough these are impor-tant factors, but ratherfrom profound failures inwater governance.….Consequently, resolv-ing the challenges in thisarea must be a key prior-ity if we are to achievesustainable water re-sources development andmanagement”.
- www.undp.org/water 
“A small body of deter-mined spirits fired by anunquenchable faith intheir mission can alterthe course of history”
- Mahatma Gandhi 
and Poverty Alleviation to workto ensure that basic services areindeed provided to the urbanpoor. The issues to focus whileappraising project reports are:(i) security of tenure, (ii) im-proved housing, (iii) drinkingwater supply, (iv) sanitation, (v)education, (vi) health care and(vii) social security. City govern-ments should build in a strongcomponent of support for urbanbasic services in their plans forinfrastructure upgradation. Among the list of 63 cities beingcovered initially, there are somethat are important from the pointof view of India’s national heri-tage, tourism potential and reli-gious pilgrimage. These includecities like Varanasi, Amritsar,Haridwar, Ujjain and manyothers.
Dr. Manmohan Singh, Hon'ble Prime Minister of India launches the JNNURM. Also seen in the Picture are Mr. Jaipal Reddy, Minister for Urban Developmentand Dr. M.S. Ahluwalia, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Govt. of India
PAGE - 2
December 2005
The purpose of any water supply system isto satisfy the needs of communities. Thesuitability of any water resource to meetthe demand hinges on the specific require-ments of the communities that will use it.The amount of water consumed by a com-munity depends on many factors. Externalfactors include climate: more water isneeded in hot weather than in cold. Somefactors may be cultural, e.g., the restrictionon water during Ramadan in Muslim coun-tries, or behavioural, e.g., washing prac-tices. These patterns are not unrelated towater availability, but they do not neces-sarily reflect the level of actual or potentialsupply. For instance, although hot weatherduring the summer season tends to in-crease demand, requirements may actuallydecrease if most people go on vacationduring that period. This situation is oftenfound on hot summer weekends in cities;the fewer people in town compensate forincreased consumption per person. Water demand also depends on wateravailability. People adapt to availablevolume and, although there is some inertiainvolved in modifying habits, increasingsupply volumes usually produce some in-crease in consumption level (other factorsbeing equal). The rate of consumption ishigh also due to lack of metering. Thesingle most important factor affecting wa-ter demand is the existing infrastructure forits supply, i.e., conduction, treatment, stor-age, and distribution systems. A key ele-ment is the ratio of service connections tothe number of households. Householdswithout connections normally (but not nec-essarily) consume much less water, andconsumption per person increases with thenumber of connections. In many countriesin Asia, the number of new connectionslag behind the number of new households,especially in the fastest growing cities inthe poorer countries.Leakage of water from the distributionsystems artificially inflates the rate of con-sumption. Although leakage occurs in anysystem (On the order of 10–20% of thewater in the system), in obsolete systemsthis proportion can increase to 30–40% ormore, e.g. in Bhopal and Indore, leakageis estimated to be as high as 50%. It
Managing Demand for Sustainable development of Water Systems in Asian Cities
would be difficult to find any large city inthe region not experiencing this problem.In some cities, leaked water is lost; in oth-ers, it finds its way into aquifers and maybe at least partly retrieved (at a cost). Poli-cies of the water management authoritiescan be used to regulate use as well. Meter-ing and pricing policies are probably themost important in affecting consumptionand demand. Water utilities should askthemselves a number of questions:
Is there adequate control (metering) ofconsumed water?
 Are pricing policies equitable for allneighbourhoods?
 What are the policies for different uses(domestic, industrial, agricultural, etc.)?
Does cost differ with different levels ofconsumption?
 Are there different prices for peak periods?
 What policies address leisure use of water,e.g., swimming pools and watering gar-dens?
Finally, the technological efficiency ofwater use can affect demand. Appliancesand fixtures designed to provide water area factor to be considered. To a large ex-tent, “water-using technology and not theuser’s behaviour, determines the amount ofwater used”. In spite of the importance ofreducing unnecessary or wasteful waterconsumption, little is done in this regard. Although water can be expensive for peo-ple at the lower income levels, the pricecharged to consumers is still below the costof supplying it when capital investments,maintenance, and other expenses areconsidered. Well-off urban residents of the Asian cities take for granted their access tolarge volumes of water at a low cost, evenwhen wasting water may mean inade-quate supply to less-affluent neighbour-hoods. However, wastage is not an exclu-sive practice of the urban upper classes;waste occurs throughout the social spec-trum, including the urban poor. Water is avaluable resource and its true economicworth must be recognized by decision-makers and consumers alike. Only withthis awareness will it be possible to bringdemand levels in line with the actual andreasonable needs of the populations.
Level of Demand in Asian Cities
 Water demand cannot be measured onlyby the level of consumption. Consumptionis always below potential demand be-cause of interruptions to the service, lowpressure, insufficient connections, etc. Onthe other hand, if conservation measureswere applied, consumption could be sig-nificantly reduced. Methods to bring abouta reduction include:
Reducing leakage to eliminate up to 20–30% of false consumption;
Introducing water-saving technology, suchas smaller toilet tanks and low-volumeshower heads; and
Changing water-consumption patterns,e.g., through adequate pricing policies orvoluntary life-style changes, to stop wastefulpractices or decrease consumption duringpeak periods (systems are overdesigned tomeet infrequent but critical peak loads).
 Actual consumption could be reduced bymore than 50% in many Asian cities, sim-ply through adequate maintenance, appro-priate policies, and greater public aware-ness. Conservation alone could probablycompensate for current deficits and a por-tion of future expansion in many cities ofthe region for a few years. However, con-servation efforts cannot bring more waterinto the systems. There is still a need toprotect present water sources and find newones, both natural and artificial, i.e., recy-cled wastewaters.
The Demand Side of the Equation
The water problem has two sides: supplyand demand. Many of the supply prob-lems in Asian cities would be solved, orwould be less acute, if more sustainablepolicies and strategies were implemented.Consumption is much greater than re-quired to simply provide water for urbanactivities and dwellings. Wastage takesplace at all levels in the water systems:leakage from the pipelines, wasteful atti-tudes encouraged by lack of metering orinadequate pricing policies, inappropriatewater-appliances, etc. To improve thesituation, therefore, both sides of the prob-lem must be attacked: increase supply andreduce demand. In both areas, improvedmanagement strategies are needed.
Energy audit should be carried out at all pump houses. It is alsosuggested that expenditure on power consumption should be re-corded and tracked by installing energy monitoring systems nearall pump houses and treatment plants.
Pilot study areas like Paramount apartments, Judges colony, CharImli in Bhopal and Ward 17, Indra Nagar (Murar) in Gwaliorhave been suggested for carrying out WDM Strategies such asDistrict-metering areas (DMA), domestic consumer metering, wateraudit, identification of leakages and repair, preparation for GISdatabase based on extensive survey of pipelines, pressure man-agement, asset management program, carry out awareness cam-paign and regularising illegal connection. Such studies will help inassessing financial and technical inputs required to carry out im-plementation of these strategies at city level.
The existing tariff structure in both cities needs to be rationalizedto address cost recovery principles, improve collection efficiencyand provide clarity to tariff design. It is also proposed to modifythe prevalent municipal accounting and financial reporting systemsfrom single-entry cash based to double-entry accrual based system.
It is also recommended that both BMC and GMC should developa master plan for provision of water supply services in Bhopal andGwalior, which will help in better management of water supplynetworks. Restructuring of the water works department with cleardemarcations for planning, construction, design, distribution O&Mand plant O&M. Creating special cells for functions such as leakdetection, consumer grievances and database management shouldalso be undertaken. Other recommendations include that anawareness campaign should be carried out to regularise illegalconnections for better revenue realisation.
Currently, both BMC and GMC follow a method of charging flatrates for domestic water supply, primarily because of non-functional metering at the consumer end. The existing tariff struc-ture needs to be rationalized to address cost recovery principles,improve collection efficiency and provide clarity to tariff design. An alternative to the current tariff structure is the ‘two part’ tariffstructure. Such a tariff design typically includes a consumption/volumetric rate in addition to the fixed water charge. It is alsosuggested to modify the prevalent municipal accounting andfinancial reporting systems from single-entry cash based to dou-ble-entry accrual based system.
 As a first step it is thus recommended that a vision be developedfor provision of water supply services by involving all stake-holders such as BMC/GMC employees, NGO’s, academia,RWA’s etc. The vision statement should draw upon the existingnational and state water polices and urban development poli-cies adopted by the state and national governments and alsothe expectations of the consumers. GMC should also develop amaster plan for provision of water supply services in Gwalior,which will help in better management of water supply net-works. Restructuring of the water works department with cleardemarcations for planning, construction, design, distributionO&M and plant O&M. It is proposed that an awareness cam-paign should be carried out to regularise illegal connections inthe areas like Ramaji ka pura for better revenue realization.
PAGE - 3
UN-HABITAT in cooperation with The Energy and Resources Insti-tute (TERI), New Delhi and Water Resource Planning and Conser-vation (WRP), South Africa has developed strategy for water de-mand management in Bhopal and Gwalior. TERI conducted awater balancing study, prepared a detailed database on a GISplatform and has made recommendations for reducing Unac-counted for Water (UFW) so that available water supply is effi-ciently and effectively distributed. This will help in developing acomprehensive reform package for Bhopal and Gwalior involvinginstitutional, financial and technical issues in water supply for suc-cessful implementation of Urban Water Supply & EnvironmentalImprovement Project in the two cities of Madhya Pradesh.The water supply to Bhopal is largely dependent on the Kolar Damand the Upper Lake. A significant fraction of the water supplied issupplemented by ground water through tube wells and handpumps. Water Balance analysis based on the available informa-tion suggests that Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in Bhopal is esti-mated to be between 31% and 49%. Similarly the water supply toGwalior is mainly dependent on the Tighra-Kaketo system andground water augments this supply. Water Balance analysisbased on the available information suggests that Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in Murar Zone is estimated to be between 55% to66%, Lashkar east zone to be 36% to 50% and Gwalior-Lashkar West zone combined NRW is around 52% to 62%. TERI hasmade the following recommendations for the two cities:
In Bhopal, bulk meters be installed at different locations of theKolar water transmission network. For the Upper Lake watersupply scheme, bulk meters should be installed at the outlet ofeach treatment plant. Similarly in Gwalior bulk meters be in-stalled at outlet of both new and old treatment plants. Bulk me-ters should also be installed at transmission mains to Murar,Lashkar East and Lashkar west. It is also recommended to installbulk meters at gravity mains from the dam. It is also proposed toinstall V-notches to measure water flow in open channels andinlet to both treatment plants to assess water allocation andleakages.
Bulk revenue meters should also be installed for revenue realisa-tion from bulk consumers like BHEL, MES, RRL in Bhopal andMES, IAF, Railways, J.A. Hospital etc. in Gwalior as they con-sume a very high percentage of the total water supplied.
Both in Bhopal and Gwalior, domestic consumer meters are notinstalled and all revenue is, therefore, realized on a flat ratebasis. The absence of metering coupled with an irrational tariffstructure results in huge losses to the service provider, whichleads to inadequate funds for proper O&M. It is, therefore, rec-ommended that domestic consumer meters should also be in-stalled.
 A dedicated team should be involved to carry out leak detectionand repair in the two cities. To begin with all visible leakagesoccurring from transmission pipes, valves and pumps should beidentified and repaired. It is also suggested that there should bephased wise replacement of water tankers with small pipedwater networks or setting up of water kiosks in the areas sup-plied through tankers.
 Water Demand Management Strategy developed for Bhopal and Gwalior

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