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WAC News May 2006

WAC News May 2006

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Published by UN-HABITAT Nepal

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Published by: UN-HABITAT Nepal on May 24, 2010
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Community Water & sanitationCommittee (CWASC) namedBagra Dafai Development Soci-ety, which was officially regis-tered as an legal entity on 4thFebruary 2006. The CWASChas entered into an agreementwith the JMC for supply oftreated water @ 70 litres percapita per day to the 1200households of the locality fromits overhead tank located nearby at Poly Pather. The Commu-nity will create the water distri-bution system with loan from JMC.The total capital cost of theproject is Rs. 22 Lacs, which isbeing provided by the UN-HABITAT to the JMC as an onetime grant, which in turn loan itto the community. The Commu-nity will pay the amount ineasy installments. As againstnormal connection charges ofRs. 1375 and Rs. 60 permonth user charges, only Rs100 per household per monthwill be charged. The capitalworks execution is expectedto take 3-6 months. Operationand maintenance of distribu-tion lines will be done by theCWASC. The CWASC willcollect connection and usercharges from the residentmembers and pay the watercharges to the JMC as perthe bulk rates agreed uponbetween the CWASC andthe JMC.period in the morning, whenthe tube wells are operated fora short period, fill up water inbuckets for their houses. Onaccount of disputes regardingwater distribution amongst theresidents around 30-40 FirstInformation Reports (FIRs) havebeen filed in the police stationin the past. On top of this, thewater from the tube wells havea high content of fluoride whichas is commonly known is harm-ful for health, especially forteeth and bones. The house-holds are, however, drinkingthis water due to lack of anyother alternative.In view of this, JMC in consulta-tion with UN-HABITAT and thecommunity has identified BagraDafai, for piloting the Commu-nity Managed Water SupplyScheme (CMWSS). It has beendecided that JMC would pro-vide treated water in bulk quan-tities sourced from the peren-nial ‘Narmada’ river, 4 hoursin the morning and 4 hours inthe evening, to 800 householdconnections for the community,if the distribution network in thelocality was developed.The purpose of this scheme is todemonstrate that it is possibleto quickly improve the lives ofthe urban poor and disadvan-taged by connecting them topiped water. The residents ofBagra Dafai have constitutedOn 15th May 2006, the Com-munity Managed Water SupplyScheme (CMWSS) at BagraDafai was inaugurated by theMayor of Jabalpur City, Mrs.Susheela Singh. The Mayorappreciated the initiative of theresidents of the locality for solv-ing their water problems andtaking up the responsibility ofimplementation of the watersupply scheme in collaborationwith the Jabalpur MunicipalCorporation (JMC) and theircommitment for post implemen-tation operation and mainte-nance of the scheme. She ad-vised the residents of BagraDafai to run this scheme in sucha manner that it becomes anexample for others to emulate.On this occasion, CTA, UN-HABITAT as well as President,Secretary and other membersof the Bagra Dafai Develop-ment Society and officials of JMC were present.The notified slum of BagraDafai, located in Guarighat Ward of Jabalpur MunicipalCorporation, have more than1200 households, almost to-tally below the poverty line. Atpresent the locality is beingsupplied water free throughpublic stand posts from threetube wells of the JMC. There isno house to house piped watersupply system in this locality.People queue up for substantial
Volume II - Issue 07
Mayor of Jabalpur City Inaugurates the CMWSS inBagra Dafai
May 2006
Urbanization lev- els are closely related to levels of income and better performance onsocial indicators,including healthand literacy. The achievement of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals is, there- fore, more likely in cities. Con- versely, urbaneconomic growthprovides the basison which citiescan contribute to the achievement of the Goals, par- ticularly in the area of poverty reduction.
—State of the World’sCities 2006/7 
Community-led Infrastruc-ture Financing Facility 
Mobilizing MPLAD / MLA-LAD Resources
Financing Urban Infrastruc-ture: Tamil Nadu UrbanDevelopment Fund
PAGE - 2
May 2006
The Community-led Infrastructure Financ-ing Facility (CLIFF) is an urban poor fundcapitalized by donors that has beendesigned to act as a catalyst in slumupgrading through providing strategicsupport for community-initiated housingand infrastructure projects that have thepotential for scaling up. The overall goalis to reduce urban poverty by increasingthe access of poor urban communities tocommercial and public-sector finance formedium to large scale infrastructure andhousing initiatives. The first initiative is inIndia with the Society for the Promotionof Area Resource Centres (SPARC), theNational Slum Dwellers Federation(NSDF) and Mahila Milan.Scaling up citywide requires an engage-ment with the formal development proc-ess and the establishment of workingrelationships with formal-sector institu-tions. This is usually problematic, largelybecause public-sector financing is se-verely constrained and has a provenrecord of being reluctant to lend to thepoor. A further problem is that the for-
Community-led Infrastructure Financing Facility (CLIFF) andBottom-up Neighbourhood Development
mal sector has continued to beunable to adapt their systems toaccommodate non-formal in-vestment processes. In Decem-ber 2002, Cities Alliance ap-proved a proposal to establishCLIFF with a seed capital ofUS$ 10 million from the UKDepartment for InternationalDevelopment (DFID) and anadditional US$ 2 million fromthe Swedish government.Homeless International (a UKNGO) is the implementingagent and works with Samu-daya Nirman Sahayak. The main func-tion of CLIFF is to:
provide bridging loans, guaranteesand technical assistance;
initiate medium-scale urban rehabili-tation in cities in the South;
work in partnership with community-based organisations (CBOs) andnon-governmental organisations(NGOs) who have or can be as-sisted to develop a track record indelivering urban rehabilitation;
seek to attract commercial, localand public-sector finance for furtherschemes, thus accelerating or scal-ing up the response to the chal-lenge of urban renewal; and
establish local CLIFF agencies thatcan operate as lasting local institu-tions.In India, national policy guidelines onhousing are being finalized, drawing onthe Urban Land Ceilings and Regulariza-tion Act from the 1970s, which allowedmunicipalities to set aside land for theshelter needs of the urban poor. Individ-ual states and cities have undertakeninnovations such as the use of transfer-able development rights to free up landfor low-income housing. In 1996, India’sSlum Rehabilitation Act allowed stateauthorities to offer land developmentrights to slum and pavement dwellers.India is also implementing reforms thatgo beyond the housing sector, but whichhave the potential to significantly im-prove the lives of slum dwellers. India’sfive-year development plan aims to pro-mote universal coverage of water supplyand sanitation. In pursuit of this goal,several central government sponsoredschemes and programmes have been
Pro-poor Reforms on Slum Upgrading in India
implemented. Under this programme, atotal of 5 million sanitation units wereconstructed. Similarly, the National SlumDevelopment Programme (NSDP) looksspecifically into upgrading of urbanslums by combining physical infrastruc-ture with social services, including watersupply, community latrines, storm waterdrainage, community bathrooms, sewersand other amenities.The government has also recentlylaunched a new programme, the Jawa-harlal Nehru National Urban RenewalMission (JNNURM), that aims to bringabout mandatory reforms both at Stateand Municipal levels to improve basicservice provision and secure tenure inurban poor neighbourhoods. The pro-gramme, the single largest national gov-ernment initiative in the urban sector,was launched in December 2005 and isto be implemented over a period of 7years. The programme’s special compo-nents include water supply and sanita-tion, sewerage and solid waste manage-ment, construction and improvement ofdrains and storm water drainage. How-ever, because of high levels of urbaniza-tion, these important programmes mayprove insufficient in the face of the hugechallenges that they need to address,particularly with regard to annual slumgrowth rates that are estimated to be1.72 per cent per annum.
Prince Charles meets members of Mahila Milan and the NationalSlum Dwellers Federation to learn how they plan, implement andmanage complex slum upgrading projects
Significant gaps and deficiencies exist inurban management in terms of provisionand delivery of services. Municipal Actionfor Poverty Reduction (MAPP) is a new tool for municipal planning to promote partici- pation, transparency, responsiveness and strategic vision. It seeks to address this gap with the participation of various stake- holders. The tool earlier used in AndhraPradesh is now proposed to be used inMadhya Pradesh.
this, the sanction for the water and sanitation sector in the cities isquite low. The average sanction of MPLAD fund for water supplyand sanitation projects in the cities during 2000-05 ie as follows:
2. MLA Local Area Development Scheme (MLALAD):
Operational since 1994, this scheme allows for a fixed amount tobe placed at the discretion of the MLA for development of his orher constituency. In Madhya Pradesh, the annual amount per MLAconstituency has been increased from Rs. 20 Lakhs in 2002–03 toRs. 60 Lakhs in 2005-06. However, the amount available underthis scheme is not being utilized in full in the financial year, andthe amount spent on water sanitation projects are quite low. Thesanction of MLALAD fund for water supply and sanitation projectsin the four cities during 2000-05 is as follows:During 2003-05, about 90 to 93 % in Indore, 54 to 60 % in Ja-balpur and 67 to 87 % in Gwalior were not sanctioned. Onanalysis, it become evident that out of entire amount available, atleast 50 % can be exclusively kept aside for water and sanitationworks. Thus, additional funds can be generated to the extent of64.40 Lakhs for Bhopal, Rs 49.45 Lakhs for Indore, Rs 114.38Lakhs for Jabalpur and Rs 61.28 Lakhs for Gwalior. The possibil-ity of mobilisation of funds per annum from various untied re-sources are summarized below:The Government of India initiated the Urban Basic Services Pro-gramme (UBSP) during the 7th Five year Plan period for urbanpoverty alleviation. Establishing linkages between community andcity level planning and management structures through a system-atic devolution of resources and responsibilities to match withcommunity needs, capacities and efforts at resource mobilizationis one of its major objectives. For effective implementation of theprogramme, the state government has constituted the State Ur-ban Development Agency (SUDA) and District Urban Develop-ment Agencies (DUDA). The UN-HABITAT study has recom-mended that the existing system can facilitate the convergenceof the untied resources available at the city level with DUDA.
PAGE - 3
Mobilizing MPLAD / MLALAD Resources for Improving Water &Sanitation Facilities in Madhya Pradesh
Today, India's urban population is second largest in the worldafter China, and is higher than the total urban population of allcountries put together barring China, USA and Russia. Over thelast fifty years, while the country’s population has grown by 2.5times, in the urban areas it has grown by five times. This has re-sulted in deterioration in the physical environment and quality oflife. The situation in the cities of Madhya Pradesh is not good, infact in some cases the conditions are alarming, needing properattention to address the problems. The growth of slums in the 4major cities, where the Water for Asian Cities Programme is beingimplemented in support of the ADB financed Urban Water Supply& Environmental Improvement Project of Government of MadhyaPradesh is as follows:There is need for urban reforms to streamline infrastructure facilitiesto improve living conditions in the expanding cities matching withtheir growth. However, for doing so there is need for mobilizationof adequate financial resources.
UN-HABITAT had recently conducted a study on financial resourcemapping using data for the five year period and drafted a strategyfor greater convergence of available resources in the 4 cities toachieve the Millennium Development Goals.In this study, the untied locally available central and state govern-ment funds not necessarily pertaining to the urban administrationdepartment, funds available with the local bodies and non govern-mental sources have been analysed. Special emphasis is on theMember of Parliament Local Area Development (MPLAD) andMember of Legislature Local Area Development (MLALAD)schemes, public contribution schemes, funds available with theULBs and from international and non government organisationsfunding. The trend of flow of fund for the water and sanitary sectorwere discussed and possibility of convergence of untied resourcesfor development for these sectors have been suggested.
Scope for Mobilisation of Untied Fund
1. Member of Parliament Local Area DevelopmentScheme (MPLAD):
Each of the 4 project cities are representedby one Member Parliament (Lower House). Thus at least Rs. 20million from MPLAD fund are available for the development worksin these cities. Besides these, there are 11 MP (Upper House) fromMadhya Pradesh. Some funds, hence, are also available fromMPLAD fund of MP (Upper House) for these cities. However, entireavailable funds are not being utilized. As per the Ministry of Statis-tics & Programme Implementation, Government of India, the utiliza-tion of MPLAD fund in Madhya Pradesh is only 60-80%. Out of
TotalPopulation(2001Census) (inthousand)
EstimatedSlum Popula-tion (As perMCs)
(in thousand)
Slum Popu-lation tototal Popu-lationPercentage
 1433.88 487 432 30.1 131
 826.92 149 478 57.8 265
 1597.44 406 260 16.3 349
 951.47 331 400 42.0 47
Particulars Bhopal Indore Jabalpur Gwalior
Sanction of fund for the district(Rs. In Lakhs)470.02 290.65 159.75 245.37Share of city as against totalsanction for the district (%)60.8 57.2 42.1 40.7Share of water & sanitation worksas against sanction for the city (%)35.2 40.1 2.68 13.0
Particulars Bhopal Indore Jabalpur Gwalior
Sanction of fund for the City(Rs. In Lakhs)96.00 169.73 109.80 147.56Total sanction for water & sanita-tion works (Rs. In Lakhs)22.40 100.55 5.62 58.72Share of water & sanitation worksas against sanction for the city (%)30.42 64.26 5.08 39.36
 Amount (Rs in Lakhs)
 MPLAD Scheme 43.42 9.35 37.63 40.21MLALAD Scheme 64.40 49.45 114.38 61.28

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