One of the major impediment to achieve the Develop-ment Goal relating to sanitation is that sanitation andhygiene has much lesser consideration during theplanning, budgeting and implementation phases.Water supply generally receives lion’s share of effortand resources compared to sanitation. All the MDGsrelating to gender, education, slums and poverty re-duction are unlikely to be met unless sanitation in-creases dramatically. Therefore, sanitation not onlylies at the heart of poverty reduction but is also aCentral plank of all the MDGs, not just those directlyreferring to water and sanitation. Sanitation inter aliacovers:
Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal of human excreta;
Management of solid waste;
Drainage & disposal of sullage / grey water;
Drainage of stormwater;
Treatment and disposal of sewage effluents;
Collection and management of industrial waste products; and
Management of haz-ardous wastes.While the whole problem cannot be solved simultane-ously, more important aspects of sanitation in a givenThe present water supply to Indore is falling far short of the demand. Water is reaching the customers for only a few hours per day at best. Themain reasons being the limited amount of raw water pumped to the city and the condition of the distribution network, which is having estimatedleakage losses and illegal connections of up to 50%. The present deficit in water supply is generally met by pumping of groundwater from numer-ous tube wells. With increasing population, their numbers have increased exponentially, resulting in over-exploitation of groundwater. The IMC hasalready initiated schemes to recharge groundwater through various methodologies of rooftop rainwater harvesting and guiding the water into theground through sink wells.To meet the shortcoming in bulk water supply, the ADB project intends to double the amount transported from the Narmada River to Indore. Simul-taneously, Water Demand Management interventions need to be initiated by WAC to provide adequate water resources management tools, i.e.assessment of safe Yields, drainage management, aquifer assessment and management strategy, management of land use and soil erosion,water quality management, communication and participatory development, institutional development and capacity building, and development of WC&DM Strategy.The second problem of leakage losses can at the moment only be approximated as few bulk supply lines and individual connections are metered.Intervention by WAC could include a comprehensive WDM programme on the supply side, focusing on technical issues, tariff structure, awarenesscreation, water education, demonstration projects of various aspects of WDM, capacity building and documentation of good practices.Thirdly, WAC programme would assist in initiating a comprehensive groundwater study to determine safe yields and provide management tools for the optimum utilization of groundwater. Ultimately, all these components can be brought together in a system of Integrated Water Resources Man-agement, which allows the urban water supply management to make well-founded decisions on allocation of water and management resources.The role of Water Conservation and Demand Management measures for reduction of water losses and efficient water utilization in all spheres of water sector is becoming increasingly important. To address this issue a collaborative project (Managing Water for African Cities Programme) wasinitiated by the UN-HABITAT and UNEP in 1999. The objective of the programme is to improve Urban Water Resource Management practices inselected African Cities by enhancing awareness, promoting effective policies programmes and investments and by building capacity at a city leveland in key national and regional institutions. This can also be affectively used for Indian cities.Through a joint initiative, the UN-HABITAT produced a Cookbook on Water Demand Management which aims at providing water suppliers withsame guidance on how to manage their water losses. Lot of training programmes based on this are being organized at international level.Initiatives such as Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Campaign (WASH) - a partnership between WSSC Council and UN-HABITAT have gained mo-mentum and received a high-level of political support and universal acceptability. UN-HABITAT will also develop E-learning Toolkit for Indore,Madhya Pradesh.
Water Conservation and Demand Management:WAC Interventions in Indore
situation need to be attended to. Each city has to workout what is important, sensible and cost effective ap-proach for sanitation in the short and long-term.In the case of Madhya Pradesh, as a very high percent-age of population defecates in the open, it remains thelargest single challenge and no real progress can bemade unless access starts to increase. However, healthgains of universal access to basic sanitation shall ac-crue if people (a) use the available sanitary facilities,properly and (b) practice some key hygienic behaviours.Therefore, Hardware alone will not be sufficient. Hy-giene promotion and social marketing are needed intandem with hardware provision. Advocacy, awarenessand education are needed must crucially to bring inbehavioural change as also to reform institutions, or-ganisations, systems of societal norms as well as rulesand regulations under which they operate. Also sanita-tion has public good aspects (primarily environmentalprotection and public health). Therefore, local Govern-ments have to link household service provision withCommunity level planning to balance local/householdneeds with wider societal ones.
WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Editorial:Covering the Sanitation Gap in Madhya Pradesh
Local Governments haveto link household serviceprovision with Commu-nity level planning tobalance local/householdneeds with wider societalones.