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WAC News November 2004

WAC News November 2004

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Published by UN-HABITAT Nepal

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Published by: UN-HABITAT Nepal on May 24, 2010
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densely built-up and developing areas of the citycenters, the project will hardly give any benefit tothe slum dwellers and the poor households living inthinly populated settlements. WAC Programme,therefore, proposes to address this challengethrough interventions which shall encourage bothpro-poor investments in these slums and squatter settlements as also through income generation for the urban poor through community based water andsanitation services.UN-HABITAT under the Water for Asian CitiesProgramme in India has planned to work in four cities of the state of Madhya Pradesh, viz. Bhopal,Gwalior, Indore and Jabalpur for which Asian De-velopment Bank has approved a loan of US $ 200million predominantly for the improvement andexpansion of urban water supply, sewerage andsanitation, water drainage and solid waste manage-ment. Implementation of this ADB project shallbenefit the population of these four cities includingthe poor outside the slum settlements, slum dwell-ers (Table below) will not have any direct benefituntil additional investments are made to improvetertiary distribution within slum settlements.Similarly for the sanitation component, only a smallpercentage of poor households (4%) will benefitwhich will be able to connect to the sewerage net-work. As the sewerage network will only be in the
Water for Asian Cities Programme in India: The RationaleINDIA – UN-HABITAT Partnership
The Government of India has been a long-termpartner of both UN-HABITAT and ADB. UN-HABITAT has implemented a number of projectsand programmes with the Government of Indiasuch as the Sustainable Cities Programme, UrbanManagement Programme, Design of Refuse Collec-tion Vehicles in Pune, Waste Recycling and Reusein Kanpur and most recently on Integrated UrbanBasic Services for Improved Health and Livelihoodsin Lucknow, Rajkot and Vishakapatnam.The Government of India also hosted the RegionalConsultation for Water for Asian Cities in New Delhiin April 2002. The Government of India attendedthe launch of the WAC Programme and also thefirst WAC Ministerial Forum in March 2003 at theWorld Water Forum in Osaka, Japan.As a first step to implement the Water for AsianCities after its launch in March 2003, UN-HABITATand ADB fielded a joint mission to the Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation(MOUDPA) in India from 15 to 17 April 2003. Themain aim of the mission was to brief the Govern-ment of India about the WAC Programme and re-questing the selection of cities in India to join theWAC Programme. Subsequently an initial assess-ment mission was fielded to Madhya Pradesh from27 April to 6 May 2003 exploring the feasibility of one or more cities for Water for Asian Cities
The Board of Direc-tors of Asian Devel-opment Bank (ADB)Manila has ap-proved a US$200million loan on 12December 2003 tohelp improve basicurban services insix of the largestcities in MadhyaPradesh, India.
The State Cabinethas approved thisloan and recom-mended to theGovt. of India fortaking further stepsto make the loaneffective
Inside this issue:
Sanitation Gap in MP
WAC Interventions inIndore
Sector Reform WSS PilotProjects in Madhya
MDGs on Water and Sani-tation
Total Population
(2001 Census)
(in thousand)
Estimated SlumPopulation
(As per MCs)
(in thousand)
Slum Populationto total Popula-tion
Illegal Colonies
: ADB PP/TA Report on IUD in M.P.
Note 1
: Recognised slums are notified by the municipal bodies, are generally scattered all over the city and lack basic infrastructure facilities. In addition tothese slums there may be more slums that are not identified by the Municipal Corporations and have not notified and included in the list
Note 2
: Illegal Colonies are settlements not registered with city Municipal Corporations and have poor physical and social infrastructure facilities. A sizeablepercentage of population lives in illegal colonies outside slum settlements.
One of the major impediment to achieve the Develop-ment Goal relating to sanitation is that sanitation andhygiene has much lesser consideration during theplanning, budgeting and implementation phases.Water supply generally receives lion’s share of effortand resources compared to sanitation. All the MDGsrelating to gender, education, slums and poverty re-duction are unlikely to be met unless sanitation in-creases dramatically. Therefore, sanitation not onlylies at the heart of poverty reduction but is also aCentral plank of all the MDGs, not just those directlyreferring to water and sanitation. Sanitation inter aliacovers:
Safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal of human excreta;
Management of solid waste;
 Drainage & disposal of sullage / grey water;
Drainage of stormwater;
Treatment and disposal of sewage effluents;
Collection and management of industrial waste products; and
Management of haz-ardous wastes.While the whole problem cannot be solved simultane-ously, more important aspects of sanitation in a givenThe present water supply to Indore is falling far short of the demand. Water is reaching the customers for only a few hours per day at best. Themain reasons being the limited amount of raw water pumped to the city and the condition of the distribution network, which is having estimatedleakage losses and illegal connections of up to 50%. The present deficit in water supply is generally met by pumping of groundwater from numer-ous tube wells. With increasing population, their numbers have increased exponentially, resulting in over-exploitation of groundwater. The IMC hasalready initiated schemes to recharge groundwater through various methodologies of rooftop rainwater harvesting and guiding the water into theground through sink wells.To meet the shortcoming in bulk water supply, the ADB project intends to double the amount transported from the Narmada River to Indore. Simul-taneously, Water Demand Management interventions need to be initiated by WAC to provide adequate water resources management tools, i.e.assessment of safe Yields, drainage management, aquifer assessment and management strategy, management of land use and soil erosion,water quality management, communication and participatory development, institutional development and capacity building, and development of WC&DM Strategy.The second problem of leakage losses can at the moment only be approximated as few bulk supply lines and individual connections are metered.Intervention by WAC could include a comprehensive WDM programme on the supply side, focusing on technical issues, tariff structure, awarenesscreation, water education, demonstration projects of various aspects of WDM, capacity building and documentation of good practices.Thirdly, WAC programme would assist in initiating a comprehensive groundwater study to determine safe yields and provide management tools for the optimum utilization of groundwater. Ultimately, all these components can be brought together in a system of Integrated Water Resources Man-agement, which allows the urban water supply management to make well-founded decisions on allocation of water and management resources.The role of Water Conservation and Demand Management measures for reduction of water losses and efficient water utilization in all spheres of water sector is becoming increasingly important. To address this issue a collaborative project (Managing Water for African Cities Programme) wasinitiated by the UN-HABITAT and UNEP in 1999. The objective of the programme is to improve Urban Water Resource Management practices inselected African Cities by enhancing awareness, promoting effective policies programmes and investments and by building capacity at a city leveland in key national and regional institutions. This can also be affectively used for Indian cities.Through a joint initiative, the UN-HABITAT produced a Cookbook on Water Demand Management which aims at providing water suppliers withsame guidance on how to manage their water losses. Lot of training programmes based on this are being organized at international level.Initiatives such as Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Campaign (WASH) - a partnership between WSSC Council and UN-HABITAT have gained mo-mentum and received a high-level of political support and universal acceptability. UN-HABITAT will also develop E-learning Toolkit for Indore,Madhya Pradesh.
Water Conservation and Demand Management:WAC Interventions in Indore
situation need to be attended to. Each city has to workout what is important, sensible and cost effective ap-proach for sanitation in the short and long-term.In the case of Madhya Pradesh, as a very high percent-age of population defecates in the open, it remains thelargest single challenge and no real progress can bemade unless access starts to increase. However, healthgains of universal access to basic sanitation shall ac-crue if people (a) use the available sanitary facilities,properly and (b) practice some key hygienic behaviours.Therefore, Hardware alone will not be sufficient. Hy-giene promotion and social marketing are needed intandem with hardware provision. Advocacy, awarenessand education are needed must crucially to bring inbehavioural change as also to reform institutions, or-ganisations, systems of societal norms as well as rulesand regulations under which they operate. Also sanita-tion has public good aspects (primarily environmentalprotection and public health). Therefore, local Govern-ments have to link household service provision withCommunity level planning to balance local/householdneeds with wider societal ones.
Editorial:Covering the Sanitation Gap in Madhya Pradesh
Local Governments haveto link household serviceprovision with Commu-nity level planning tobalance local/householdneeds with wider societalones.
Page 2
The Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for all campaign (WASH) is a con-certed advocacy and communications campaign to mobilize politicalawareness, support and action to end the suffering of the 1.1 billionpeople without access to safe water, and the 2.4 billion without ade-quate sanitation.The most important contribution of WASH has been to bring sanitationand hygiene under the spotlight among the policy makers. Statisticsindicate that some 36 per cent of water related sicknesses could beattributed to inadequate sanitation, some 35 per cent to water and itsquality, while hand washing can reduce sicknesses by 35 per cent.Hygiene brings water and sanitation together and helps to get the mostout of water and sanitation. Access to basic hygienic sanitation is ahuman right. UN-HABITAT’s partners in Brazil were launching theWater and Sanitation Hygiene (WASH) campaign in Habitat Debate,September 2003. The joint effort of UNHABITAT and the Water Supplyand Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) have led to bringingWASH now to Latin America and the Caribbean.Access to clean water and sanitation facilities is a key indicator of progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals, but alltoo often, investments in the sector have tended to by-pass the poor,who are in dire need. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water and sanitation are really quite modest. In the 1980s, the worldset the goal of water and sanitation for all by 1990. A few years beforethat, in Mar del Plata, Argentina, in 1977, access to safe water hadbeen recognized as a universal human right - by definition a right of allpeople in all countries. In contrast, our goals today are only to halvethe proportions without affordable access to safe water and adequatesanitation by 2015.In April 2001, UN-HABITAT and the Collaborative Council jointlylaunched the Urban Wash Campaign in Africa during the first GlobalUrban Forum held in Nairobi. This innovative initiative has helped agreat deal to raise awareness of the importance of water, sanitationand hygiene among policy-makers, professionals and the media sinceit was first launched in Bonn during the Ministerial Water Conference.UN-HABITAT’s strategic vision touches human society in general. UN-HABITAT has been innovative and effective in slum-upgrading strate-gies for the adaptation and expression of global norms related to urbangovernance, urban poverty, slums, shelter and basic services at thecity level. The common priority is to address the needs of the urbanpoor, particularly women and other vulnerable people living in poverty.
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Programme. It has now been decided in principle to cover all the four ADB Project cities (Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur) under the Water for Asian Cities Programme.A Stakeholders’ Consultation was organized by UN-HABITAT, jointly with ADB in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, in August 2004 with a view to assesscapacity building needs and priorities within the framework of the ADB investment project. The Government of Madhya Pradesh expressed itsappreciation for the effective outcome of the Stakeholders’ Consultation. An Implementation Strategy for WAC programme in India is now beingdeveloped by UN-HABITAT in consultation with its partners.
The objectives of the UN-HABITAT’s Water for African Cities Pro-gramme and the Water for Asian Cities Programme are to reduce theurban water crisis in cities through efficient and effective water demandmanagement, to build capacity to reduce the environmental impact of urbanisation on freshwater resources and to boost awareness andinformation exchange on water management and conservation. Theseprogrammes focus on the identification and promotion of such ap-proaches in order to support the slum dweller target of the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDG) and the relevant principles and commit-ments of the Habitat Agenda.The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is aleading international organisation that enhances collaboration in thewater supply and sanitation sector to accelerate the achievement of sustainable water, sanitation and waste management services to allpeople, with special attention to the un-served poor, by enhancingcollaboration among developing countries and external support agen-cies and through concerted action programmes.For the Urban WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) campaign, UN-HABITAT and WSSCC are in close partnership, which will enable bothto be pioneers in the creation of a coalition between the local bodiesand governments on one hand, and civil society on the other. Unlesspeople are really brought into the centre of all planning, action andimplementation, the real goal will never be achieved and it will not besustainable.Mrs. Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka Executive Director, UN-HABITAT re-marked at the launch of the WASH Campaign organised by UN-HABITAT’s partners in Brazil that UN-HABITAT, like all other support-ers of the hygiene, sanitation and water goals, needs to advocate for all the MDGs, and to put water and sanitation issues at the centre of allgoals.No doubt, the task ahead is a daunting one. However, with the requi-site political will and existing donor goodwill, it is achievable. Now is thetime to get all hands on deck – communities, governments, and devel-opment partners will need to pull together to restore hope for the mil-lions in the slums across the world for whom clean water, sanitationand hygiene facilities are a matter of life and death. This is our ultimategoal at UN-HABITAT.
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