“Closed” ends – where the axial loads are taken by the cylinder, thereforethere must be direct axial stressThe two configurations are achieved using the large hand wheel at the end of the frame.3.
In the Open ends condition the hand wheel is screwed fully in. This pushes the twopistons away from the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact between them.Therefore, the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil into the frame ratherthan the cylinder. See Figure 4.Figure 4 Open Ends ConditionFigure 5 Closed Ends ConditionGapFramePath of loadHandwheelwound inHandwheelwound outFrameGap
End capEnd cap
End capPistons(touching frame)Oil underpressure
Pistons(touching end cap)4.
In the Closed ends condition the hand wheel is wound out. This allows the pistonsto move outward against the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact withthe frame. Therefore the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil intothe cylinder itself. See Figure 5.5.
In relation to stress analysis, cylinders are divided into two groups: thin and thick.The distinction between the two relates to the ratio of internal diameter to wallthickness of a particular cylinder.6.
A cylinder with a diameter to thickness ratio of more than 20 is considered to bethin. A ratio of less than 20 is considered to be thick. This distinction is made asthe analysis of a cylinder can be simplified by assuming it is thin. The SM1007cylinder has a ratio of approximately 27, which is well above the ratio forbeing considered thin.
PROCEDURESExperiment 1 – Thin Cylinder with Open Ends
In this experiment we will pressurize the cylinder in the open ends condition taking readingsfrom all six strain gauges, we will then analyze the results in various ways to establish someimportant relationships. Examine the cylinder and the diagram on the front panel tounderstand the notation and placement of the strain gauges in relation to the axis of thecylinder. The experimental method utilizes the SM1007 software to display and takereadings.1.
Having set up and familiarized yourself with the equipment open the pump releasevalve and screw in the hand wheel to set up the open ends condition.2.
In the SM1007 software choose ‘
Open Ends Condition
’ from the ‘
’ menuoption. Then connect the SM1007 unit by selecting ‘
Connect to SM1007
’ from the samemenu. The virtual meters on the screen should now display values of pressure and strain.3.
Close the pump release valve and zero the readings by selecting ‘
Zero All Gauges
’from the ‘
’ menu option. All the virtual strain meters should now read0
, and the pressure meter should read 0