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Exp 6 - Thin-Thick Cylinder

Exp 6 - Thin-Thick Cylinder

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Lab Sheet Exp 6 - Thin-Thick Cylinder
Lab Sheet Exp 6 - Thin-Thick Cylinder

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Published by: sean_john49 on May 24, 2010
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03/13/2013

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No Dokumen:SB/MMSB2/T2/BMCS2333/6No Isu./Tarikh1/2006
SOLID MECHANICS 2THIN & THICK CYLINDER ANALYSIS
 
No Semakan/Tarikh0Jum Mukasurat
9
 
KOLEJ UNIVERSITI TEKNIKALKEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA
 
OBJECTIVES
This experiment is to demonstrate and analyze the stress systems in a thin and thick cylinder.The theories and principles that will be involved in this experiment are:
 
Biaxial stress system
 
The use of strain gauges
 
Young’s Modulus
 
Poisson’s ratioComparison of stress systems between thin and thick cylinder also could be made.The analysis of the stress distribution in a thin/thick walled cylinder is of considerablepractical importance in pressure vessels and gun barrels. Strain gauges mounted on variousradius and at different alignments throughout the cylinder wall provide the measurement ofthe strains. Thus stress distribution throughout the wall of a cylinder subjected to an internalpressure could be analyzed.
THEORYTheory of Thick Cylinder
σ
H
σ
H
σ
L
σ
R
r
 
Material Elementat radius ‘r’Figure 1 Cylinder under Internal Pressure
 
Figure 1 shows a hollow cylinder, which is subjected to a uniformly distributed internalpressure
P
. The figure details an element of material at some radius r, contained within anelemental cylinder. Due to the design of the SM1011 Thick Cylinder the longitudinal stress
σ
L
may be ignored and only a bi-axial system be considered. Hence the stress formulas areshown below and Figure 2 the stresses variation throughout the wall cylinder.Maximum
σ
R
occurs at the inner radius (R
1
) i.e.
σ
R
=-PMinimum
σ
R
occurs at the outer radius (R
2
) i.e.
σ
R
=0Maximum
σ
H
occurs at the inner radius (R
1
) i.e.
( )( )
22
11
 H 
P
+=
σ  
(1)Minimum
σ
H
occurs at the outer radius (R
2
) i.e.
( )
( )
2
21
 H 
P
=
σ  
(2)where
21
 R R
=
 1/6
 
SB/MMSB2/T2/BMCS2333/6
 
σ
R
σ
H
( )( )
22
11
P
+
( )
( )
2
21
P
0
 
-
P
 
P
Figure 2 Stress Variation Throughout a Cylinder Wall
 
Now for a cylinder under internal pressure and free from axial loading, the maximum shearstress will occur at the inner radius.i.e. Maximum shear stress,
$
τ  
= ½
×
(difference of the two principal stresses).=
2
 R
σ σ  
(3)Substituting we get:- =
( )
222221
P R R R
(4)Therefore:
$
τ  
=
( )
22
1
P
(5)In the case of the TQ cylinder:
=4.054 and therefore
$
τ  
=1.065
P
.
APPARATUSThin Cylinder
CylinderHand WheelDiagram,Indicating GaugeFactorMechanicalPressure GaugePumpSocket forCommunicationCableFigure 3 Layout of the SM10071.
 
Figure 3 shows the SM1007 Thin Cylinder apparatus. It consists of a thin walledaluminum cylinder of 80 mm inside diameter and 3 mm wall thickness. Operating thehydraulic pump pressurizes the cylinder with oil.2.
 
The cylinder has six sensors on its surface that measure strain. A mechanical gaugeand electronic sensor measure the hydraulic pressure in the cylinder. The cylinder isheld in sturdy frame in which it is free to move along its axis. The strain (and thus thestress) can be measured with the cylinder in two configurations:a.
 
“Open” ends – where the axial loads are taken by the frame (not the cylinder),therefore there is no direct axial stress
 
SB/MMSB2/T2/BMCS2333/6
 
b.
 
“Closed” ends – where the axial loads are taken by the cylinder, thereforethere must be direct axial stressThe two configurations are achieved using the large hand wheel at the end of the frame.3.
 
In the Open ends condition the hand wheel is screwed fully in. This pushes the twopistons away from the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact between them.Therefore, the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil into the frame ratherthan the cylinder. See Figure 4.Figure 4 Open Ends ConditionFigure 5 Closed Ends ConditionGapFramePath of loadHandwheelwound inHandwheelwound outFrameGap
Gap
End capEnd cap
End cap
End capPistons(touching frame)Oil underpressure
Oil underpressure
Pistons(touching end cap)4.
 
In the Closed ends condition the hand wheel is wound out. This allows the pistonsto move outward against the cylinder end caps so that there is no contact withthe frame. Therefore the axial force is transmitted from the pressurized oil intothe cylinder itself. See Figure 5.5.
 
In relation to stress analysis, cylinders are divided into two groups: thin and thick.The distinction between the two relates to the ratio of internal diameter to wallthickness of a particular cylinder.6.
 
A cylinder with a diameter to thickness ratio of more than 20 is considered to bethin. A ratio of less than 20 is considered to be thick. This distinction is made asthe analysis of a cylinder can be simplified by assuming it is thin. The SM1007cylinder has a ratio of approximately 27, which is well above the ratio forbeing considered thin.
PROCEDURESExperiment 1 – Thin Cylinder with Open Ends
In this experiment we will pressurize the cylinder in the open ends condition taking readingsfrom all six strain gauges, we will then analyze the results in various ways to establish someimportant relationships. Examine the cylinder and the diagram on the front panel tounderstand the notation and placement of the strain gauges in relation to the axis of thecylinder. The experimental method utilizes the SM1007 software to display and takereadings.1.
 
Having set up and familiarized yourself with the equipment open the pump releasevalve and screw in the hand wheel to set up the open ends condition.2.
 
In the SM1007 software choose ‘
Open Ends Condition
’ from the ‘
Experiments
’ menuoption. Then connect the SM1007 unit by selecting ‘
Connect to SM1007
’ from the samemenu. The virtual meters on the screen should now display values of pressure and strain.3.
 
Close the pump release valve and zero the readings by selecting ‘
Zero All Gauges
from the ‘
Experiments
’ menu option. All the virtual strain meters should now read0
±
0.3
με
, and the pressure meter should read 0
±
0.01MPa.

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