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Clase: Ondas de Materia

Clase: Ondas de Materia

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08/23/2010

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1
\ue007\ue006\ue002\ue001\ue009\ue000\ue002\ue003
\ue007\ue006\ue002\ue001\ue009\ue000\ue002\ue003
\ue005\ue001\ue00a\ue003\ue008\ue004\ue001
\ue005\ue001\ue00a\ue003\ue008\ue004\ue001
2
\u2022
\u2022Por
Porsimetr
simetr\u00ed
\u00eda
a,
,las
laspart
part\u00ed
\u00edculas
culasdeben
debentener
tenertambi
tambi\u00e9
\u00e9n
n
caracter
caracter\u00ed
\u00edsticas
sticasondulatorias
ondulatorias
h
p =
; E=h\u03bd
\u03bb
Part\u00edcula: E, p
Onda:\ue000, f
Caracter\u00edsticas
Relaciones de
De Broglie
TEOR\u00cdA DE DE BROGLIE (1923)
longitud de onda

part\u00edcula que se
mueve con
momentum p

Difracci\u00f3n de la luz
Difracci\u00f3n de electrones
3
\u00bfCu\u00e1l debe ser la energ\u00eda de un electr\u00f3n que tiene
la misma longitud de onda que un fot\u00f3n de 10 keV?
Longitud de onda del Fot\u00f3n:
-34
8
-10
f
4
-19
hc 6,63\u202210 \u00d73\u202210
\u03bb= =
=1,24\u202210 m
E 1\u202210\u00d71,6\u202210
Momentum del electr\u00f3n:
-34
-24
-10
h 6,63\u202210
kg\u2022m
p= =
=5,35\u202210
\u03bb 1,24\u202210
s
Energ\u00eda del electr\u00f3n:
\ue000
\ue001
2
-24
2
-17
-31
5,34\u202210
p
E=
=
=1,57\u202210 J=98eV
2m 2\u20229,1\u202210
TEOR\u00cdA DE DE BROGLIE
4
Difracci
Difracci\u00f3
\u00f3n
nde
deElectrones
Electrones
(
(Davisson
DavissonGermer
Germer, 1927)
, 1927)
5
m o n o c ris t
a
l
p o lic ris ta
l
Difracci
Difracci\u00f3
\u00f3n
nde
deElectrones
Electrones
(
(Davisson
DavissonGermer
Germer, 1927)
, 1927)
n\u03bb
= d sen
\u03b8
Condici\u00f3n de Bragg :
p= 2mqV
V
6
Difracci
Difracci\u00f3
\u00f3n
npor
poruna
unaL
L\u00e1
\u00e1mina
de Al
(
(Estructura
EstructuraPolicristalina
Policristalina)
)
(G. P. Thomson, 1927)
(G. P. Thomson, 1927)
Difracci
Difracci\u00f3
\u00f3n
nde
deRayos
RayosX
X
(E=17,5
(E=17,5keV
keV;
;\ue001\ue000
\ue001\ue000= 0,071 nm)
= 0,071 nm)
Diffracci
Diffracci\u00f3
\u00f3n
nde
deElectrones
Electrones
(E = 600
(E = 600eV
eV;
;\ue001
\ue001=0,05 nm
=0,05 nm)
)
7
MOMENTO ANGULAR ORBITAL Y LONGITUD DE ONDA
niveles de energ\u00eda del \u00e1tomo de hidr\u00f3geno
n
2
13, 6
E=- eV, n=1,2,3,4...
n
Momento angular de \u00f3rbita estacionaria:
\ue000
n
Ln
\ue000
n
n n
n
n
h
h
L =p r =n
y
\u03bb
=
2\u03c0
p
n
n
r
n
\ue002
\ue000
\ue0012

\u00d3rbitas estables son las que el per\u00edmetro de la \u00f3rbita
contiene un n\u00famero entero de longitudes de onda del
electr\u00f3n

8
Principio de incertidumbre
(Heisenberg, 1927).
h
x\u00b7 p
4
\ue000
\ue000
\ue001
\ue000
\ue000\u201cEs imposible conocer simult\u00e1neamente la
posici\u00f3n y la cantidad de movimiento de una
part\u00edcula\u201d
9
\ue006\ue009\ue000\ue00d\ue018\ue011\ue00a\ue00e
\ue006\ue009\ue000\ue00d\ue018\ue011\ue00a\ue00e\ue01f
\ue01f\ue011\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue018\ue011\ue009\ue000\ue013\ue009\ue015\ue017
\ue011\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue018\ue011\ue009\ue000\ue013\ue009\ue015\ue017\ue01e
\ue01e\ue00a\ue018\ue00f\ue009\ue000\ue00f\ue012\ue00a\ue009\ue00f\ue00e\ue01b\ue009\ue00b\ue009\ue002\ue000\ue013\ue009\ue014\ue018\ue00c\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009\ue016
\ue00a\ue018\ue00f\ue009\ue000\ue00f\ue012\ue00a\ue009\ue00f\ue00e\ue01b\ue009\ue00b\ue009\ue002\ue000\ue013\ue009\ue014\ue018\ue00c\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009\ue016
\ue005\ue018\ue011\ue00a\ue00e\ue01f\ue011\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue018\ue011\ue009
\ue013\ue009\ue015\ue017\ue01e\ue00a\ue018\ue00f\ue009\ue000\ue017\ue012\ue017\ue009\ue00f\ue010\ue00c\ue011\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00f\ue012\ue00a\ue009\ue00f\ue00e\ue01b\ue009\ue00b\ue009
\ue01c\ue00a\ue01f\ue010\ue012\ue000\ue016\ue00c\ue000\ue00a\ue012\ue011\ue016\ue017\ue015\ue018\ue01a\ue00c\ue003

\ue008\ue018\ue013\ue00c\ue015\ue013\ue012\ue016\ue00e\ue00a\ue00e\ue01f\ue011\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue019\ue009\ue015\ue00e\ue009\ue016\ue000\ue00d\ue018\ue011\ue00a\ue00e\ue012\ue011\ue00c\ue016\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009
\ue014\ue018\ue00c\ue000\ue00e\ue011\ue017\ue00c\ue015\ue00d\ue00e\ue00c\ue015\ue00c\ue011\ue000\ue00a\ue012\ue011\ue016\ue017\ue015\ue018\ue00a\ue017\ue00e\ue019\ue009\ue010\ue00c\ue011\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00c\ue011\ue000\ue018\ue011\ue009
\ue013\ue012\ue016\ue00e\ue00a\ue00e\ue01f\ue011\ue000\ue01a\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue016\ue017\ue015\ue018\ue00a\ue017\ue00e\ue019\ue009\ue010\ue00c\ue011\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00c\ue011\ue000\ue00c\ue00f\ue000\ue015\ue00c\ue016\ue017\ue012\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue00f
\ue00c\ue016\ue013\ue009\ue00a\ue00e\ue012\ue002\ue000\ue007\ue009\ue014\ue018\ue00c\ue017\ue00c\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue012\ue011\ue00b\ue009

\ue004\ue018\ue009\ue011\ue017\ue012\ue000\ue010\ue01d\ue016\ue000\ue013\ue015\ue00c\ue00a\ue00e\ue016\ue009\ue000\ue00f\ue009\ue000\ue013\ue012\ue016\ue00e\ue00a\ue00e\ue01f\ue011\ue000\ue00b\ue00c\ue000\ue00f\ue009\ue000\ue013\ue009\ue015\ue017\ue01e\ue00a\ue018\ue00f\ue009\ue001\ue000\ue010\ue01d\ue016\ue000\ue00e\ue010\ue013\ue015\ue00c\ue00a\ue00e\ue016\ue012\ue000\ue016\ue018\ue000\ue010\ue012\ue010\ue00c\ue011\ue017\ue01210
El principio de incertidumbre de Heisenberg

Una part\u00edcula inestable producida por una colisi\u00f3n de alta energ\u00eda tiene una masa 5 veces mayor que la del prot\u00f3n y una incertidumbre en su masa que es el 2,8% de la masa de la part\u00edcula. Estime el tiempo de vida de la part\u00edcula

Un cient\u00edfico afirma haber encontrado un nuevo m\u00e9todo para aislar part\u00edculas individuales que le permiten detectar simult\u00e1neamente su posici\u00f3n a lo largo de un eje con una desviaci\u00f3n est\u00e1ndar de 0,14 nm y su componente de la cantidad de movimiento a lo largo de este eje con una desviaci\u00f3n est\u00e1ndar de 2,0 x 10-25 kgm/s. Use el principio de Heisenberg para evaluar la validez de esta afirmaci\u00f3n

\ue000
\ue001\ue000
\ue001
9
25
34
34
x p 0,14 10 2 10
0,3 10 0,52 10
\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
\ue003 \ue006\ue003 \ue002
\ue004
\ue004
\ue005 \ue004
\ue001
\ue004
NO es v\u00e1lido !
\ue000
\ue001\ue000
\ue001
2
2
27
8
12
E
mc
0,028 5 1,67 10
3 10
6,3 10 J
\ue000
\ue000
\ue002 \ue001\ue002
\ue001
\ue003 \ue003
\ue003
\ue003
\ue001
\ue003
35
24
12
/ 2
5,2 10
t
8,3 10
s
E
6,3 10\ue000
\ue000
\ue000
\ue003
\ue001 \ue002
\ue002
\ue002
\ue003
\ue001
\ue003
\ue000
11
COMO FUNCIONAN?
\u2022Requieren hardware cu\u00e1ntico: bits cu\u00e1nticos (qubits). Una vez
conseguido\u2026:
\u2022Se ejecuta un programa (secuencia de operaciones f\u00edsicas sobre
qubits).
\u2022Se realiza una medici\u00f3n al final.
La clave: Durante la ejecuci\u00f3n del programa la computadora
cu\u00e1ntica explora muchos c\u00e1lculos cl\u00e1sicos (paralelismo intr\u00ednseco)
PARA QUE SIRVEN?
\u2022Podr\u00edan hacer todo lo que hace una computadora cl\u00e1sica\u2026 (pero eso no es
muy interesante)
\u2022Unos POCOS algoritmos cu\u00e1nticos son mucho m\u00e1s eficientes que sus
contrapartes cl\u00e1sicas:

\u2022Encontrar factores primos de n\u00fameros enteros (Shor).
\u2022Realizar grandes simulaciones de sistemas naturales (f\u00edsica)
\u2022B\u00fasquedas en grandes bases de datos (Grover)
\u2022\u2026?

QUE PINTA TIENEN?
(muy primitivas)
David Deutsch
Richard Feynman
Peter Shor
1981
1990
1994
12
Un sistema f\u00edsico puede representar un \u201cbit
cl\u00e1sico\u201d si puede existir en dos estados distintos
El ingrediente b\u00e1sico del hardware cu\u00e1ntico:
Bits cu\u00e1nticos (qubits)

En el mundo microsc\u00f3pico las\u201cpelotas\u201d no siguen trayectorias!
Una part\u00edcula cu\u00e1ntica (un fot\u00f3n, por ejemplo) puede usarse para
representar un\u201cqubit\u201d: algo que puede existir en mas de dos