THE ROLE OF TWO NATION THEORY INTHE INDEPENDENCE OF PAKISTAN
also known as
The Ideology of Pakistan
was the basis for thePartition of India in 1947. It stated that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by everydefinition, and therefore Muslims should have a self-governing homeland in the Muslim majorityareas of British India for the safeguard of their political, cultural, and social rights, within or without a United Nation. The two nation theory is the reason Pakistan came into being andacquired independence.
The Two-Nation Theory or Islamic Ideology of Pakistan was merely a negation of the philosophy that the Indian sub-continent was only one nation. The Two Nation Theory explainsthat Indian sub-continent has two large communities as Hindus and the Muslims.The Two Nation Theory developed through an evolutionary process. The Muslim modernistand reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) was the pioneer of the Two Nation Theory. Heused the word “Two-Nations” for Hindus and Muslims once he was convinced of the Hindu andCongress’s hatred and prejudice towards the Muslims of the sub Continent.The famous poet and philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), provided the philosophical explanation whereas Barrister Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1871-1948) translated itinto the political reality of a nation state.
TheAll-India Muslim League, in attempting to represent Indian Muslims, felt that the Muslimsof the subcontinent were a distinct and separate nation from the Hindus. At first they demandedseparate electorates, but when they came to the conclusion that Muslims would not be safe
in aHindu-dominatedIndia,they began to demand a separate state. TheLeaguedemandedself-
determinationfor Muslim-majority areas in the form of a sovereign state promising minoritiesequal rights and safeguards in these Muslim majority areas.
1 Samina Mallah,
"Two-Nation Theory Exists,"
hereafter, Mallah, “Two Nation”