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beton precomprimat_cap4

beton precomprimat_cap4

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Published by: Florin on May 24, 2010
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01/11/2011

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30
Pierderi de tensiune
4 Pierderi de tensiune
4.1 Introducere

Pentru a determina efortul \u00een arm\u0103turile pretensionate trebuie\ue000inut seama de anumite fenomene, cum ar fi frecarea la \u00eentiderea arm\u0103turilor, lunecarea \u00een ancoraj la blocare, nesimultaneitatea tension\u0103rii diefritelor arm\u0103turi, deforma\ue000iile datorate tratamentului termic, relaxarea eforturilor \u00een arm\u0103tur\u0103, curgerea lent\u0103 a betonului. Toate aceste fenomene produc pierderi de efort (tensiune) \u00een arm\u0103turile pretensionate.

Primele patru fenomene sunt instantanee (\u015fi au cauze legate de tehnologia de execu\ue000ie). Ultimele dou\u0103 sunt fenomene care se desf\u0103\u015foar\u0103 pe o perioad\u0103 lung\u0103 de timp, dur\u00e2nd mai mul\ue000i ani (fenomene reologice).

Pierderile de tensiune se calculeaz\u0103 diferit pentru procedeul cu arm\u0103turi pre\u00eentinse
fa\ue000\u0103 de procedeul cu arm\u0103turi post\u00eentinse.
\u00cen normele rom\u00e2ne\u015fti STAS 10107/0-90 sunt considerate urm\u0103toare pierderi de
tensiune :
a) Arm\u0103turi pre\u00eentinse
- Faza ini\ue000ial\u0103 :

\u2206\u03c3\u03bb = pierdere datorit\u0103 lunec\u0103rii (reculului) \u00een ancoraj la blocare ;
\u2206\u03c3f = pierdere datorit\u0103 frec\u0103rii pe traseu a arm\u0103turilor ;
\u2206\u03c3s = pierdere datorit\u0103 tension\u0103rii succesive a arm\u0103turilor ;
\u2206\u03c3t = pierdere datorit\u0103 tratementului termic ;
\u2206\u03c3ri = pierdere datorit\u0103 relax\u0103rii arm\u0103turilor \u00eenainte de transfer.

- Faza final\u0103 :
\u2206\u03c3rf = pierdere datorit\u0103 relax\u0103rii arm\u0103turilor dup\u0103 transfer ;
\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 = pierdere datorit\u0103 curgerii lente a betonului.
b) Arm\u0103turi post\u00eentinse
- Faza ini\ue000ial\u0103 :

\u2206\u03c3\u03bb = pierdere datorit\u0103 lunec\u0103rii (reculului) \u00een ancoraj la blocare ;
\u2206\u03c3f = pierdere datorit\u0103 frec\u0103rii pe traseu a arm\u0103turilor ;
\u2206\u03c3s = pierdere datorit\u0103 tension\u0103rii succesive a arm\u0103turilor ;
\u2206\u03c3str = pierdere datorit\u0103 strivirii betonului sub arm\u0103turile \u00eenf\u0103\u015furate ;

- Faza final\u0103 :
\u2206\u03c3r = pierdere datorit\u0103 relax\u0103rii arm\u0103turilor ;
\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 = pierdere datorit\u0103 curgerii lente a betonului.
Pierderi de tensiune
31
4.2 Variabilitatea pierderilor de tensiune. Calcul eforturilor \u00een arm\u0103turi

Pierderile de tensiune calculate conform STAS 10107/0-90 sunt valori maxime probabile,\u015fi sunt cu circa 20% mai mari dec\u00e2t valorile medii. Valorile minime probabile sun cu 20% mai mici dec\u00e2t valorile medii. Rezult\u0103 urm\u0103toarea rela\ue000ie \u00eentre valorile minime

\u015fi cele maxime ale pierderilor de tensiune :
\u2206\u03c3min = 0,80\u2206\u03c3moyen = (0,80/1,20) \u2206\u03c3max \u22450,65\u2206\u03c3max
(4.1)
\u00cen consecin\ue000\u0103, se pot calcul valori minime\u015fi respectiv valori maxime ale eforturilor din
arm\u0103tur\u0103 :
\u2212pentru arm\u0103turile pre\u00eentinse :
\u2212\u00een faza ini\ue000ial\u0103
min
0
p
\u03c3
=\u03c3pk - (\u2206\u03c3\u03bb +\u2206\u03c3f +\u2206\u03c3s +\u2206\u03c3t +\u2206\u03c3ri)
(4.2)
max
0
p
\u03c3
=\u03c3pk \u2013 0,65(\u2206\u03c3\u03bb +\u2206\u03c3f +\u2206\u03c3s +\u2206\u03c3t +\u2206\u03c3ri)
(4.3)
\u2212 \u00een faza final\u0103
min
0
p
\u03c3
=
min
0
p
\u03c3
- (\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 +\u2206\u03c3rf)
(4.4)
max
0
p
\u03c3
=
max
0
p
\u03c3
- 0.65(\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 +\u2206\u03c3rf)
(4.5)
\u2212pentru arm\u0103turile post\u00eentinse :
\u2212\u00een faza ini\ue000ial\u0103
min
pp
\u03c3
=\u03c3pk - (\u2206\u03c3\u03bb +\u2206\u03c3f +\u2206\u03c3s +\u2206\u03c3str)
(4.6)
max
pp
\u03c3
=\u03c3pk \u2013 0,65(\u2206\u03c3\u03bb +\u2206\u03c3f +\u2206\u03c3s +\u2206\u03c3str)
(4.7)
0
p
\u03c3
=
pp
\u03c3
+np\u03c3bp
\u2212 \u00een faza final\u0103
min
0
p
\u03c3
=
min
0
p
\u03c3
- (\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 +\u2206\u03c3r)
(4.8)
max
0
p
\u03c3
=
max
0
p
\u03c3
- 0.65(\u2206\u03c3\u03c6 +\u2206\u03c3r)
(4.9)
4.3 Ara,turi pre\u00eentinse
A. \u00cen faza ini\ue000ial\u0103
4.3.1 Pierderi de tensiune la ancoraj (\u2206\u03c3\u03bb)

Aceste pierderi corespund lunec\u0103rii toroanelor sau s\u00e2rmelor \u00een pene\u015fi a penelor \u00een pl\u0103cile de ancoraj la detensionarea presei\u015fi blocarea penelor. Tendin\ue000a de recul a arm\u0103turii blocheaz\u0103 prin efect de pan\u0103 penele \u00een ancoraj. Aceast\u0103 lunecare are valori de la 1 la 12 mm \u00een func\ue000ie de tipul de ancoraj\u015fi proecedeul de pretensionare folosit. El figureaz\u0103 \u00een fi\u015fa de agrement tehnic a procedeului, sau \u00een STAS 10107/0-90.

Scurtarea arm\u0103turii este :
32
Pierderi de tensiune
p
L\u03bb
\u03b5=
(4.10)
unde :
\u03bb = lunecarea \u00een ancoraj ;
Lp = lungimea cablului \u00eentre ancoraje.
Aceast\u0103 scurtare produce o pierdere de tensiune \u00een arm\u0103tur\u0103 :
\u2206\u03c3\u03bb=
pp
p
LE
E
\u03bb
\u03b5=
(4.11)
Dac\u0103 \u00eentinderea se face de la amblele capete, pierderea de tensiune este :
\u2206\u03c3\u03bb=
p
p
2
1
L
E
)
(
\u03bb
\u03bb+
(4.12)
Exemplu : Pentru un cablu de lungime Lp = 20 m, \u00eentins de la un singur cap\u0103t, la care
lunecarea este\u03bb = 5 mm, pierderea de tensiune este :
\u2206\u03c3\u03bb=
MPa
50
20
10
200
10
5
LE
3
3
pp
=
\u22c5
\u22c5
\u22c5
=
\u2212
\u03bb
Pentru un efort de control\u03c3pk = 1500 Mpa, acesta pierdere reprezint\u0103 3,3 %
Conform standardului STAS 10107/0-90, anexa H, tabelul 44, lunec\u0103rile \u00een
ancorajele cele mai utilizate \u00een Rom\u00e2ni sunt :
Tabelul 4.1 \u2013 Valori ale lunec\u0103rilor \u00een ancoraj dup\u0103 STAS 10107/0-90
Tipe de ancoraj
\u03bb
\u03bb\u03bb
\u03bb ( m m)
Ancoraj cu piuli\ue000\u0103 pentru bare
1
Ancoraj cu pene pentru SBP A I ou TBP
4
Ancoraj cu pene pentru bare
4
12\u03a65 mm
4
Ancoraj inel-con simplu pentru fascicule
cu s\u00e2rme paralele
12\u03a67 mm, 24\u03a67 mm
5
Ancoraj inel-con dublu pentru fascicule 48\u03a67 mm
7
4.3.2 Pierderi de tensiune din frecare pe traseu (\u2206\u03c3f)

La arm\u0103turile pre\u00eentinse, pierderile din frecare pe traseu apar numai \u00een cazul arm\u0103turilor deflectate (ceea ce este destul de rar \u00een cazul precomprim\u0103rii cu arm\u0103turi pre\u00eentinse). Aceste pierderi trebuie determinate experimental.

4.3.3 Pierderi de tensiune datorit\u0103 tension\u0103rii sucesive a arm\u0103turilor (\u2206\u03c3s)
Dac\u0103 pretensionarea se face pe stand, nu se produc pierderi, pentru c\u0103 ancorarea se
face pe culei, care sunt foarte rigide. Dac\u0103pretensionarea se face pe tipar autoportant, la

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