P r e e t F e r o z e p u r i a
(power stroke)In the petrol engine, the fuel/air mixture is ignited by a spark plug, whereas in the dieselengine fuel is injected under high pressure and the mixture ignites spontaneously.
(charge exchange stroke)The exhaust gas is expelled when the piston moves up.These simple operating principles provide various possibilities of increasing the engine'spower output:
Swept volume enlargement
Enlargement of the swept volume allows for an increase in power output, as more air isavailable in a larger combustion chamber and thus more fuel can be burnt. Thisenlargement can be achieved by increasing either the number of cylinders or thevolume of each individual cylinder. In general, this results in larger and heavier engines.As far as fuel consumption and emissions are concerned, no significant advantages canbe expected.
Increase in engine rpm
Another possibility for increasing the engine's power output is to increase its speed. Thisis done by increasing the number of firing strokes per time unit. Because of mechanicalstability limits, however, this kind of output improvement is limited. Furthermore, theincreasing speed makes the frictional and pumping losses increase exponentially andthe engine efficiency drops.
In the above-described procedures, the engine operates as a naturally aspiratedengine. The combustion air is drawn directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke. Inturbocharged engines, the combustion air is already pre-compressed before beingsupplied to the engine. The engine aspirates the same volume of air, but due to thehigher pressure, more air mass is supplied into the combustion chamber. Consequently,more fuel can be burnt, so that the engine's power output increases related to the samespeed and swept volume.Basically, one must distinguish between mechanically supercharged and exhaust gasturbocharged engines.
With mechanical supercharging, the combustion air is compressed by a compressordriven directly by the engine. However, the power output increase is partly lost due tothe parasitic losses from driving the compressor. The power to drive a mechanicalturbocharger is up to 15 & percent; of the engine output. Therefore, fuel consumption ishigher when compared with a naturally aspirated engine with the same power output.