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Proposal Water Resources Dr Fahmy

Proposal Water Resources Dr Fahmy

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A doc that Dr. Fahmy has uploaded here in "Scribd" for the use of other scientists to let them download it in order to avoid their permanent problems to receive this doc as attached file with his email messages to them
A doc that Dr. Fahmy has uploaded here in "Scribd" for the use of other scientists to let them download it in order to avoid their permanent problems to receive this doc as attached file with his email messages to them

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Prof.Dr.Mohamed Fahmy Mohamed Hussein on May 25, 2010
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12/03/2011

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Arab Republic of EgyptCairo University – Prof. Dr. Mohamed Fahmy Hussein
Toward an Integrated Use of Water Resources in Egypt for Toward an Integrated Use of Water Resources in Egypt for thethe2121
 st  st 
CenturyCentury
 Proposal by
 Prof. Prof.Dr. Dr.Mohamed Mohamed Fahmy FahmyMohamed Mohamed Hussein HusseinSoil Soil and and Water Water Depart, Faculty Depart, Facultyof of Agriculture, Cairo University Agriculture, Cairo University
 
Toward an Integrated Use of Water Resources in Egypt for Toward an Integrated Use of Water Resources in Egypt for thethe2121
 st  st 
CenturyCentury
Mohamed Fahmy Hussein
AbstractWater resources management is a most important question of nationalsecurity in Egypt since the country is quasi-totally depends on the unique water-offer source available that is the River Nile. Maximization of water-offer andminimization of water-demand are the logic concepts of any action plan thatwould tackle the issue in an effective way. However, the classic administrationin Egypt does not go far away from the routine work concept, except in rarecases. This leads to losing the power of the nation to deal with the new conceptsand novel solutions.The present proposal introduces the application of a set of moderntechnologies that would actively participate in handling the water crisis in thecountry, and provides an innovative vision through the proposed solutionstoward the integration of the use of surface and groundwater resources in thecountry. Moreover, it introduces a new concept to increase the national water-offer and decrease the national water-demand in order to create a balance between them in Egypt, throughout the 21
st
century.This original concept includes the management of the nation’s surfaceand groundwater resources, the implementation of new source of energy to helpin enhancing the water inflow into the country, the performance of non-conventional experimental work and lab measurements for testing andvalidating the projected approaches. Last but not the least the whole package is based on the conjunctive use of a set of new concepts, computer modeling, datacollection and processing.The future needs of Egypt for additional and free of pollution water are beyond the present day scope of the relevant governmental services.Consequently, a rather revolutionary methodology must find a room. Onlyuniversity research teamwork might be charged to get a scientific look on thesubject for generating a quit integrated package of water-use solutions in Egyptfor the 21
st
century.
 
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Introduction and Background
Egypt is probably a unique exception “among the scarce-water countries” worldwideas it is the most arid country on Earth, with very scant precipitation. However, an intrusiveriver, the River Nile, has ever completely changed the nature of the water “Offer-Demandequation in the nation since the dawn of the History.The Nile was not the unique source that made the life in Egypt but also the genuinemanagement of the Nile-water and the Nile alluvial soils by the ancient Egyptians thatcreated a rather distinctive nation. So not only, as Herodotus wrongly said long ago, thatEgypt is the “Gift of the Nile” but Egypt is also the gift of the Egyptians. The evidence is thatother countries have rivers that are probably greater (in terms of discharge) than the Nile butthey did nothing with their rivers during the human history.Despite the fact that the Nile, compared with other large rivers of the world, started tohave a rather modest discharge since the advent of the Holocene
(when the Egyptian population has displaced from the adjacent lands that became a part of the arid-hot Great  Desert)
the population of the country mostly enjoyed a surplus of water resources on the banks of that river during its long history.However, with frequent acute, positive or negate, changes in the Nile discharge -roughly once per decade - around its annual mean (~ 90 billion m
3
) a great deal of worryalways existed in the country as a result of the destructive nature of the high floods and/or thesevere water shortages. Due to the lack of appropriate technology, the historic attempts tocompletely control the Nile discharge has ever ended-up by failure to the extent that theancient Egyptians have formerly attributed the caprices of the river to impulsive divinecharisma of power.By the year 1970, the discharge of the Nile into Egypt was finally entirely controlled,for the first time in the history, with the completion of the High-Dam (that started 9 yearsearlier) at Aswan, in the south of the country. By that epoch, the Egyptian population was justonly about 35million people.By the start of the 21
st
century the nation’s population jumped to ~80million people,and the country currently has an enormous need for a water supply that greatly exceeds itsannual share (of 55.5 billion m
3
) in the Nile (as fixed by the International Nile-Water Agreement, signed at the onset of the 20
th
century by the 9 Nile-Basin Countries.) The criticalwater-poverty limit (1000m
3
/year) has greatly surpassed three decades ago, leaving a verynarrow margin of maneuver for the classic management of the water resources in a countrythat depends almost entirely on the Nile for every aspect of life activities. At present, thecountry requires >75 billion m
3
of water a year in order to satisfy the internal demand for all purposes.Evidently, water management in Egypt is the most important “national-security issue”since it is, simply, a question of life or death. Even with the full-control of the river dischargeat Aswan, forty years ago, many additional measures have had always been undertaken to fillthe ever-widening gap between the water-offer and the water-demand in the country.Consequently, an integrated use of the water resources is a continual effort thatshould, by no means, be ended-up. Each serious single idea, useful concept or new approachshould be looked-at, reviewed, studied, experimented, and finally installed, if it was shown to be applicable and beneficial to increase the water offer and/or to reduce the water demand, or  both, in the country.Surface-water resources are mostly appreciated since they are, clearly, readily-available, greatly guaranteed and highly assured. However, they are vulnerable to pollution problems Groundwater resources, on the contrary, are much less appreciated due to severalissues related to its lack of availability, modest quality and questionable renewability.However, they are mostly far from being victim of pollution
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