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LINUX - Conceitos básicos e funções

LINUX - Conceitos básicos e funções

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Published by Roberto Andrade
Principais tópicos cobrados em prova sobre o sistema operacional Linux em uma abordagem bem explicativa para leigos: PRINCIPAIS COMANDOS E SUAS FUNÇÕES, DIRETÓRIOS, SOFTWARE LIVRE, GPL, KERNEL E SHELL, DISTRIDUIÇÕES LINUX, ROOT E DEMAIS USUÁRIOS, AMBIENTES GRÁFICOS, TIPOS DE ARQUIVO, REGRAS DE NOMENCLATURA E PERMISSÕES DE ARQUIVO.
Principais tópicos cobrados em prova sobre o sistema operacional Linux em uma abordagem bem explicativa para leigos: PRINCIPAIS COMANDOS E SUAS FUNÇÕES, DIRETÓRIOS, SOFTWARE LIVRE, GPL, KERNEL E SHELL, DISTRIDUIÇÕES LINUX, ROOT E DEMAIS USUÁRIOS, AMBIENTES GRÁFICOS, TIPOS DE ARQUIVO, REGRAS DE NOMENCLATURA E PERMISSÕES DE ARQUIVO.

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Published by: Roberto Andrade on May 25, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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07/22/2013

 
 
P\LU^ÜLU EAHLO^@N@U# WKNLA @\C@U L @VAU^KC@U/ WKUK^L= ZZZ/TADLT^A@ONT@NL/EAH/DT
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zzz/tadlt~a`ont`nl/eah/dt
CKO\R= Oaêülu Dàuke`u nl |~kck}`êåaAtkjlh l Bku~õtkea
Lh 0;;0# |h lu~|n`o~l n` \okwltukn`nl nl Blcukoik eb`h`na
Cko|u ^atw`cnu
"ga~a+# kokeka| anlulowacwkhlo~a nl |h oýecla nl uku~lh` avlt`ekao`c ulhlcb`o~l `a \OKR# lcl d`~k}a| lu~` knëk`nl CKO\R/A \OKR lt` |h Uku~lh` Avlt`ekao`c |u`na lh eahv|~`natlu nl jt`onl vat~l "H@KOGT@HLU+ oau`oau :6/A oýecla Cko|r ë eaouknlt`na a h`ku khvat~`o~l lrlhvca hanltoa nl |h uag~z`tl ckwtl/\h g`~at p|l ul eaouknlt` luuloek`c v`t` a u|eluua na Cko|r# na vao~a nl wku~` na vtaeluua nl nlulowacwkhlo~a# ë `lueacb` vlc` ckeloê` JVC# p|l j`t`o~k| `au eac`dat`natlu ` vtlultw`êåa na ~t`d`cba eao~tkd|èna/A u|eluua `v`tlo~l na vtaeluua nl nlulowacwkhlo~a |~kck}`na oa Cko|r a clwa| ` ult khk~`na l tlvcke`na vat a|~tau`|~atlu ko~ltluu`nau lh vtan|}kt uag~z`tl ckwtl/
A p|l ë |h Uag~z`tl Ckwtl ! JVC ― Ckeloê` Výdcke` Jlt`c
Ulj|ona ` GUG# uag~z`tl Ckwtl agltlel `a |u|àtka a nktlk~a nl |u`t# lu~|n`t# hankgke`t ltlnku~tkd|è(ca/ @ Gtll Uag~z`tl Ga|on`~kao "GUG ( G|on`êåa v`t` a Uag~z`tl Ckwtl+ ë |h`atj`ok}`êåa ulh gkou c|et`~kwau# g|on`n` lh 0;2< vat
Tkeb`tn U~`cch`o
"ga~a+ l p|l ulnlnke`n` æ lckhko`êåa nl tlu~tkêülu uadtl ` eõvk`# tlnku~tkd|kêåa# lo~lonkhlo~a lhankgke`êåa nl vtajt`h`u nl eahv|~`natlu/
Nlgkokona `u p|`~ta ckdltn`nlu p|l ~ato`h |h uag~z`tl ckwtl=
º @ ckdltn`nl nl lrle|~`t a vtajt`h`# v`t` p|`cp|lt vtavõuk~a9º @ ckdltn`nl nl lu~|n`t eaha a vtajt`h` g|oekao`# l `n`v~à(ca v`t` `u u|`u oleluukn`nlu/ @eluua `a eõnkja(gao~l ë |h vtë(tlp|kuk~a v`t` lu~` ckdltn`nl9º @ ckdltn`nl nl tlnku~tkd|kt eõvk`u nl hana p|l waeí vauu` dlolgkek`t a vtõrkha9º @ ckdltn`nl nl `vltglkêa`t a vtajt`h`# l ckdlt`t au ul|u `vltglkêa`hlo~au# nl hana p|l ~an` ` eah|okn`nl uldlolgkekl/ @eluua `a eõnkja(gao~l ë |h vtë(tlp|kuk~a v`t` lu~` ckdltn`nl/
A Cko|r ë |h Uag~z`tl Ckwtl1
 Lo~lon` p|l# nlwkna æu nkwltu`u w`o~`jlou p|l |h uag~z`tl ckwtl ~lh lh tlc`êåa `au ~t`nkekao`ku vtajt`h`u v`jau"eaha e|u~au# vauukdkckn`nl nl hankgke`êåa na vtajt`h`+# ` h|n`oê` nl `tlu o` kogathà~ke` nllhvtlu`u výdcke`u l vtkw`n`u# u`kona na p|`ul aokvtlulo~l Zkonazu v`t` a aokueklo~l Cko|r# ëkolwk~àwlc/E`n` wl} h`ku# au `~ë lo~åa |u|àtkau n` Hketauag~ lu~åa ul lo~tlj`ona `au vt`}ltlu "l nlu`gkau+nl |~kck}`t a uku~lh` na vkojóko "`c|uåa `a Cko|r vatp|l ul| –h`uea~l‘ a| –cajah`te`‘ ë |hukhvà~kea vkojóko# eb`h`na
^|r
+/
 
 
P\LU^ÜLU EAHLO^@N@U# WKNLA
^an`u `u nku~tkd|kêülu na Cko|r uåa kj|`ku1 
 Oåa! Bà vlp|lo`u nkgltloê`u lo~tl lc`u#hluha vtan|~a "a Cko|r+# lhd`c`na vat wwàtkau tlu~`|t`o~lu nkgltlo~lu= ` tlelk~` ënà ukh!
Eaoelk~au Jlt`ku
V`t` |~kck}`t a Cko|r# oåa ë oleluuàtka olobh`u# ë ec`ta p|l ul a |u|àtka p|l vtl~long`tlk `p|k lo~tl Zkonazu l Cko|r ultåa |h@cj|ou nau vtkoekv`ku vao~au ` ultlh nkue|~
A Cko|r ë |h uku~lh` h|c~k|u|àtka=
A p||u|àtka ë tleaoblekna vlca uku~lh` p|`on"vtlwk`hlo~l e`n`u~t`nau+/ Kuua ukjokgke` pp|l lcl tl`ck}l a vtaeluua nl Cajao/ A Ca|u|àtka+ l n` V`uuzatn "ulob`+/
A Cko|r vanl ult |~kck}`na jt`gke`hlo~l=
hana `hkjàwlc eah p|l a Zkonazu ul h|u|àtkau lrvlt~u# ë vtlgltktlh a Cko|r eeah`onau nkgltlo~lu nleat`nau uagtkn`hl@p|k w`k |h clhdtl~l v`t` au |u|àtkau h`ka Zkonazu# l kuua g`ekck~` a `vtlonk}`na/
@cj|h`u eaku`u oa Cko|r uåa h`ku nkgèelku
uku~lh` n` Hketauag~# h`u oåa ë dlh `uuknl ~lt a eao~tacl ~a~`c uadtl a uku~lh` avlt ․ V`t` |u`thau a Cko|r# nlwlhau oau knlo
gko`oelkta# taa~
+ l |h` ulob`/ A cajko
taa~
 
\C@U L @VAU^KC@U/ WKUK^L= ZZZ/TAD
zzz/t
 
`u o`n` p|l khvauukdkck~l a `vtlonk}`na nlcàtk`u lhvtlu`u nkgltlo~lu "eaha |h` –C`u`ob`hluh`# h`u p|l nà v`t` ulo~kt nkgltloê`u vl|h eaoblekhlo~a vtëwka lh Zkonazu a| p|`cp|u`t a Cko|r mà lo~lonl eaoelk~au nl a|~tau vtlrelclo~l hana nl lu~|na /knau oa Cko|r uåa=l ukjokgke` p|l wàtk`u vluua`u vanlh |~kck}`t a Cka kokek` u|`u `~kwkn`nlu hlnk`o~l ` `vtlulo~`ê|l ultà oleluuàtka# ~an`u `u wl}lu p|l |h |u|jao eaouku~l o` `vtlulo~`êåa na Cajko "oahlp|lt nk}lt p|l a uku~lh` Cko|r vanl ul `vtlulu~t`/ A Cko|r ~lh `hdklo~lu jtàgkeau# l h|k~ah u|` ko~ltg`el dàuke`= ~lr~a! ^lc` vtl~`# cl~l! ^kva oa HU(NAU///clhdt`1eë~keau l `hlntao~`nau= A Cko|r |u` ha|ul l
nl g`}lt=
Kuua# ë ec`ta# vanl `~ë ult tlc`ekao`na! A Cko|r eahvcke` elt~`u eaku`u ukh! Luul ë a`ekao`c/~kgke`t# kogath`ona |h cajko "p|l vanl ult
`o`
vlthk~l# `a ul| nl~lo~at# a eao~tacl ~a~`c na uku
T^A@ONT@NL/EAH/DT
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d
 
lt~a`ont`nl/eah/dt
u# `gko`c# lu~`hau g`c`ona na`au p|`~ta p|lkmau‘ glk~` vat|lo`u oa u`dat nl e`n` |h`#|lt a|~ta uku~lh` avlt`ekao`c#ajt`h`u# `u eahv`t`êülu p|lo|r lh |h eahv|~`nat/ E`n`åa nl |h oahl l |h` ulob`tka gat |~kck}`t a eahv|~`nat#e`n`u~t`na oa uku~lh` v`t` ao~`t v`t` a |u|àtka na hluha! Ec`ta p|l a oath`c# v`t` au~t`u dt`oe`u l |h` uëtkl nlèeaolu9 m`olc`u l hlo|u# eahaeah a g`~a nl |u`thau h`ku atlêa p|l ul v`j` vlca nktlk~a
# h`tk`# tadlt~a# vlnta# `nh#
~lh` Cko|r/
 
 
P\LU^ÜLU EAHLO^@N@U# WKNLA @\C@U L @VAU^KC@U/ WKUK^L= ZZZ/TADLT^A@ONT@NL/EAH/DT
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zzz/tadlt~a`ont`nl/eah/dt
Eaha a Cko|r Wku|`ck}` au @tp|kwau
\h `tp|kwa ë p|`cp|lt eaom|o~a uõckna nl kogath`êülu jt`w`na lh |h` |okn`nl nl `th`}lo`hlo~a "hlhõtk` `|rkck`t#eaha |h nkuea tèjkna a| |h EN# vat lrlhvca+/ Oath`chlo~l# |h `tp|kwa ë etk`na vlc` lrle|êåa na eah`ona U`cw`t#eah|h lh ~`o~au vtajt`h`u `vcke`~kwau/ Lh a|~t`u v`c`wt`u# p|`ona waeí nkjk~` `cja lh |h vtajt`h` nl ~lr~a a|vc`okcb`# vat lrlhvca# lu~à etk`ona |h @tp|kwa/ H`ku vtleku`hlo~l# lu~à etk`ona |h @tp|kwa nl N`nau/@tp|kwau uåa nkwknknau lh `cj|ou ~kvau=․ @tp|kwau Eah|ou= vanlh ult u|dnkwknknau lh=
@tp|kwau nl N`nau=
eao~ëh n`nau nl nkwltuau ~kvau# au h`katlu lrlhvcau uåa au `tp|kwau p|l h`okv|c`hau= ~lr~au#nae|hlo~au# vc`okcb`u# gkj|t`u# ga~au# HV5# l~e/
@tp|kwa nl ~lr~a @UEKK=
ë |h ~kva luvleègkea nl @tp|kwa nl N`nau# luetk~au vat vtajt`h`u lnk~atlu nl ~lr~a/ Uåa `tp|kwauh|k~a ukhvclu l uõ eao~ëh ~lr~a "e`t`e~ltlu+/ Luulu `tp|kwau oåa `nhk~lh a|~ta ~kva nl n`na# eaha gkj|t`u a| ~`dlc`u/Oåa uåa vauuèwlku olh hluha `u gath`~`êülu oath`ku "oljtk~a# k~àckea l u|dckob`na+/ \h `tp|kwa na Zatn# oåa ë |h`tp|kwa nl ~lr~a @UEKK/
@tp|kwau nl Ublcc Uetkv~=
uåa `tp|kwau luetk~au eaha ~lr~au @UEKK# a| ulm`# lh vtajt`h`u lnk~atlu nl ~lr~a/ Ul| eao~lýnaë gath`na vat eah`onau p|l a Cko|r eaoulj|l ko~ltvtl~`t/ Luulu `tp|kwau uåa eaha –ta~lktau‘ eah wàtk`u kou~t|êülu p|la Cko|r w`k lrle|~`t/
@tp|kwau dkoàtkau
"lrle|~àwlku+= uåa `tp|kwau luetk~au lh ckoj|`jlh nl hàp|ko` "}ltau l |ou+ p|l vanlh ult lrle|~`nauvlc` EV\ na eahv|~`nat/ Luulu `tp|kwau uåa# o` wltn`nl# eb`h`nau nl vtajt`h`u a| `tp|kwau lrle|~àwlku/ Lclu oåa uåaluetk~au v`t` ultlh cknau vlca |u|àtka# lclu uåa etk`nau v`t` ultlh eahvtllonknau vlca Cko|r l lrle|~`nau vat lcl/ V`t`etk`t ~`ku `tp|kwau# nlwl(ul luetlwlt |h vtajt`h` lh `cj|h` ckoj|`jlh "eaha E# vat lrlhvca+ l eahvkcà(ca ` gkh nl p|lul ~t`ougathl oa `tp|kwa dkoàtka/
․ Nktl~õtkau=
Ukh# au nktl~õtkau "v`u~`u+ uåa eaouknlt`nau `tp|kwau oa Cko|r/ A uku~lh` lo~lonl p|l |h nktl~õtka ë |h`tp|kwa luvlek`c# p|l ~lh lh ul| eao~lýna |h `vao~`nat v`t` ~anau au `tp|kwau p|l ul hau~t`h –nlo~ta‘ na nktl~õtka/

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