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C. Rizos and D. Paull. Next Gen GNSS, and Nationwide Terrestrial Augmentation Netwworks. 2 papers with Sky-Tel annotations.

C. Rizos and D. Paull. Next Gen GNSS, and Nationwide Terrestrial Augmentation Netwworks. 2 papers with Sky-Tel annotations.

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Sky-Tel annotations on 2 papers by Chris Rizos (with Matt Higgins and Gary Johnston) and Dan Paull, all from Australia, on the topic in the title above. These explain the importance and some of the means, for nationwide high-accuracy location that Sky-Tel (in its other SCRIBD publications) called Cooperative High Accuracy Location or C-HALO. C-HALO must be supported by tightly integrated mission-critical grade wide-area radio systems in order for many of the most important applications of C-HALO to be supported, including in intelligent or smart transportation, energy and environment radio (STEER) networks.
Sky-Tel annotations on 2 papers by Chris Rizos (with Matt Higgins and Gary Johnston) and Dan Paull, all from Australia, on the topic in the title above. These explain the importance and some of the means, for nationwide high-accuracy location that Sky-Tel (in its other SCRIBD publications) called Cooperative High Accuracy Location or C-HALO. C-HALO must be supported by tightly integrated mission-critical grade wide-area radio systems in order for many of the most important applications of C-HALO to be supported, including in intelligent or smart transportation, energy and environment radio (STEER) networks.

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Published by: Skybridge Spectrum Foundation on May 25, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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TS 10C – GNSS Modernisation and TrendsChris Rizos, Matt Higgins and Gary JohnstonImpact of Next Generation GNSS on Australasian Geodetic InfrastructureFIG Congress 2010Facing the Challenges – Building the CapacitySydney, Australia, 11-16 April 20101/19
Impact of Next Generation GNSS on Australasian Geodetic Infrastructure
Chris RIZOS, Matt HIGGINS and Gary JOHNSTON, AustraliaKey words
: geodesy, GPS, GNSS, CORS instructure
SUMMARY
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) involve satellites, ground stations and user equipment, and are now used to support many activities within modern societies. Amongthem, precise positioning for geodetic, surveying and critical real-time machine guidanceapplications requires a substantial investment in ground infrastructure in the form of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) and associated ICT components. Thefederal government, state governments and the government of New Zealand are currentlyestablishing CORS networks to address several precise positioning ‘markets’. The foundationinfrastructure in Australia is funded under the AuScope initiative and, together with other geodetic CORS will by mid-2011 see well over 250 stable CORS across Australia and NewZealand to support national datum and global geodesy goals. The latter include support for theInternational GNSS Service (IGS) and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS).The Global Positioning System (GPS) from the U.S. is the best known, and only currentlyfully operational, GNSS. Russia has deployed its own GNSS called GLONASS which will befully operational within one or two years. Fuelling growth in precise positioning applicationsduring the next decade will be next generation GNSSs that are currently being developed anddeployed, these include the U.S.’smodernised GPS-IIF and planned GPS-III, the revitalised(and later to be modernised) GLONASS, Europe’splanned GALILEO system, and China’sCOMPASS system. Furthermore, a number of Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs)and Regional Navigation Satellite Systems (RNSSs) will add extra satellites and signals to themulti-constellation GNSS/RNSS ‘mix’.This paper explores some of the implications of next generation GNSS from the perspectiveof precise positioning. In particular, issues such as the different “tiers” of CORS, unificationof CORS infrastructure, capabilities of the next generation CORS receiver, and deploymentstrategies for future CORS will be discussed.
 
Chris RIZOS,
CORS nstructure
[SKYTEL:* The margin comments herein are by Warren Havens of Skybridge Spectrum Foundation and the "Telesaurus" LLCs of Berkeley CA ("SkyTel").SkyTel presents the below paper with another paper also by Chris Rizos, April-May 2010, prepared for SkyTel to explain relevant aspects of their plan tosupport nationwide "Cooperative High Accuracy Location" or "C-HALO" in the US using means and for purposes similar to those presented herein. ][Nationwide high accuracy, high reliability postioninginfrastructure and services is a critical infrastructure formodener nations, as is transportation, commumication, andenergy, etc. SkyTel focuses on the wireless spectrum,plans, and implementation for that in the US, andcommunication and planning with those working on saidinfrastructure plans and deploymnets in other nations.]
11-16 April 2010
* Note: SkyTel is not affilated with the intitutions of the authors of this paper.An unmarked copy of this paper is online at: http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2010/papers/ts10c%5Cts10c_rizos_4148.pdf
ATTACHMENT 2, Part 1 (Part 2 is below)
 
TS 10C – GNSS Modernisation and TrendsChris Rizos, Matt Higgins and Gary JohnstonImpact of Next Generation GNSS on Australasian Geodetic InfrastructureFIG Congress 2010Facing the Challenges – Building the CapacitySydney, Australia, 11-16 April 20102/19
Impact of Next Generation GNSS on Australasian Geodetic Infrastructure
Chris RIZOS, Australia1.NEXT GENERATION GNSS1.1From GPS to Multi-GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) involve satellites, ground stations and user equipment, and are now used to support many activities within modern societies. The U.S.
Global Positioning System
(GPS) is the best known, and only currently fully operationalGNSS. Russia also operates its own (not yet fully deployed) GNSS called
Glonass
, to be fullyoperational 2010-2011. Fuelling growth in applications during the next decade will be nextgeneration GNSSs that are currently being developed and deployed (see Rizos, 2008 for details). Europe is developing
Galileo
, for deployment 2013-2015, and China launched
 Beidou
 – which was the first Regional Navigation Satellite System (RNSS) – and thenannounced
Compass
, a GNSS to be deployed in the time period 2015-2020. Japan will launchin 2010 the first satellite of its own regional augmentation to GPS and Galileo known as the
Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
(QZSS). India has proposed the
 Indian RNSS 
(IRNSS) to beoperational in the next decade (although details are still scant). In addition there are a number of Space-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) that are already deployed (such as the U.S.’sWide Area Augmentation System – WAAS, The E.U.’s European Geostationary NavigationOverlay System – EGNOS, and Japan’s MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System - MSAS), or will be soon (India’s GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation – GAGAN, and Russia’sSystem of Differential Correction & Monitoring –SDCM), that broadcast extra navigationsignals primarily intended for aviation users (though only in the protected aeronauticalfrequency spectrum bands). Hence most of the big space players all now have, or will in thecoming decade launch, a GNSS, RNSS or SBAS. In this paper these ”next generation”navigation satellite systems, combined with the current and modernised GPS, will becollectively referred to as ”multi-GNSS” systems. We may distinguish between the multi-GNSS satellite systems (the space infrastructure), the user equipment and the groundaugmentation infrastructure (the ground infrastructure) needed to support high accuracyapplications such as geodesy, surveying and machine automation.The main advantage that the multi-GNSS era will bring is
more satellites
. It is estimated that by 2015, if the planned deployments go ahead, there will be up to 3 times the number of satellites and 4-6 times the number of individual signals on which measurements can be made,compared to today’s number (50 satellites, on which two-frequency measurements can bemade). It is generally conceded that the more satellites and signals there are, the better the positioning performance is – in terms of accuracy, availability, reliability and integrity.
1.2Multi-GNSS and an Increase in Satellite Availability
Figure 1 shows the average visibility – the number of satellites above a 15° elevation cutoff angle – of the current 31 satellite GPS constellation on a worldwide basis over a 24 hour t
 
he ground infrastructure)
 
TS 10C – GNSS Modernisation and TrendsChris Rizos, Matt Higgins and Gary JohnstonImpact of Next Generation GNSS on Australasian Geodetic InfrastructureFIG Congress 2010Facing the Challenges – Building the CapacitySydney, Australia, 11-16 April 20103/19
 period on 20 June 2009 (Dempster & Rizos, 2009). A similar analysis can be performed for the current 20 satellite Glonass constellation. Surprisingly the average number of visiblesatellites is 8-10 for both constellations, and hence tracking
both
GPS and Glonass would on
average
effectively double the number of trackable GNSS satellites. (Of course theincomplete Glonass constellation would result in times of the day when there would besignificantly less visible satellites than the case for GPS.)
Figure 1: Average number of visible satellites (15° elevation cutoff angle) of the 31 satellite GPSconstellation on a worldwide basis over a 24 hour period (Dempster & Rizos, 2009).
Compare this to the average worldwide next generation GNSS satellite visibility in Figure 2for the GPS (the current 31 satellite constellation), Glonass (planned 24 satelliteconstellation), Galileo (planned 30 satellite constellation), Compass (possible 27 satelliteconstellation), IRNSS (possible 7 satellite constellation) and QZSS (3 satellite constellation),assuming an elevation cutoff angle of 15°, calculated over a 24 hour period. In theAustralasian region the average number is over 40. The maximum number of visible satellitesis close to 60.
1.3Multi-GNSS and an Increase in Satellite Measurements
An important aspect of the ”richness” of multi-GNSS is the number of transmitted frequency bands (Figure 3), and the different modulated signals on those carrier frequencies. In principle, a receiver can be designed to track any of the individual signals (and somefrequencies will have multiple signals on which measurements could be made, in ananaloguous manner that an appropriately configured GPS receiver can track the open C/A-code or the encrypted Y-code on the L1 frequency). A receiver that could track all of the

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