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AP BIO ESSAYS

AP BIO ESSAYS

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Published by eddfungus
AP biology essay questions from 1983 1986 1973
AP biology essay questions from 1983 1986 1973

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Published by: eddfungus on Jun 01, 2008
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11/10/2012

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EXTRA OPPORTUNITY FOR CH. 41 AND 42 EXAMYOU MAY CHOOSE TO ANSWER UP TO 3 ESSAY QUESTIONS FROM THEFOLLOWING. IF THEY ARE ANSWERED IN YOUR OWN WORDS, ARE AMINIMUM OF 2 PARAGRAPHS EACH AND ARE ANSWERED ACCORDING TO APSTANDARDS, YOU WILL RECEIVE UP TO 4 POINTS FOR EACH QUESTIONANSWERED. IF YOU CHOOSE TO ANSWER ALL 3, YOU MUST CHOOSE ATLEAST ONE THAT ADDRESS EACH TOPIC COVERED ON THE EXAM:
DIGESTION, RESPIRATION, AND CIRCULATION
. AN EXAMPLE MIGHT BETHAT YOU ANSWER QUESTIONS FROM, 1976 (RESPIRATION), 1986(DIGESTION), AND 1993 (CIRCULATION). ESSAYS ARE DUE BY FRIDAYAT 4pm. IF YOU CANNOT WRITE LEGIBLY, TYPE YOUR RESPONSES!!!!!!!!
1973
:The action of organs and organ systems must be coordinated.Discuss the interaction of factors involved in controlling heartrate and breathing rate in mammals during periods of relaxationand periods of stress.1976:Discuss the intake, transport, exchange, and release ofgases in mammals.
1980
:In humans, discuss the transport of gases (oxygen andcarbon dioxide) by the blood and exchange of these gases betweenthe blood and cells of the body. Include in your discussion thecellular and fluid composition of the blood.
Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system.Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration andexpiration.
Describe the processes of fat and protein digestion andproduct absorption as they occur in the human stomach and smallintestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactionsinvolved.
Discuss the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide thatoccur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals. Include inyour answer a description of the transportof these gases in the blood.
Many physiological changes occur during exercise. (a) Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesisthat an exercise session causes short-term increases in heartrate and breathing rate in humans. 
 
(b) Explain how at least three organ systems are affectedby this increased physical activity and discuss interactionsamong these systems. YOU CAN FIND THE AP GRADING RUBRIC FOR THE LAST 4 ESSAYS AT THEFOLLOWING WEB SITE:
 
 
AP essaysEdmund Fung1983:The mammalian respiratory consists on many structures. Wellwe start with the nose which is the nasal passage. This area isvery important. It heats up the air, and has mucus to trapbacteria or unwanted material. Next the air moves into the windpipe. The wind pipe is right next and behind the esophagus.During the travel down the wind pipe, we would go through thevocal box or the larynx. Next we get into the most famousstructure of the respiratory system of all. It is the lungs. Theair is transferred from the wind pipe to the bronchial tree inthe lungs. The bronchial tree in the lungs is like a large treelike structure that allows the air to be spread out to differentparts of the lungs to the alveoli. The alveoli are grape likestructures with capillaries running around them. The mainpurpose for these structures is the actual transfer of gases.The thin one layer thick alveoli and capillary walls allows thetransfer of oxygen.Inspiration and expiration is the intake and exhale of air.Both of these are mainly controlled by one main organ. They arecontrolled by the diaphragm. In inspiration, the diaphragmcontracts and in expiration, the diaphragm relaxes. We also mustremember that the breathing is involuntary. This meaning wedon’t have to think about it. The rib cage also rises when wetake breathes to allow the diaphragm to get bigger.1986:The digestion of fats and protein starts in the stomach andadvances to the small intestines. Although it starts in thestomach, there is no absorption there. The main thing thathappens in the stomach, is mechanically digestion. To help withthe mechanical breakdown, the stomach produces a acid calledHCL. HCL stands for hydrochloric acid. Parietal cells producesthe acid, while on the other hand, the chief cells produces thepepsin. Gastrin is the hormone which is suppose to be in chargeof the release of these chemicals. The stomach is very acidic,but in the small intestine it goes more basic.Lots of absorption happens in the small intestines. Theabsorption is done by the microvilli on the villi in the smallintestines. The purpose of these villis are to increase the

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