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Digital Logic and Design (BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)

# Digital Logic and Design (BOOLEAN ALGEBRA)

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10/28/2010

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Boolean Algebra:
The most obvious way to simplify Boolean expressions is to manipulate them in the same way as normalalgebraic expressions are manipulated. With regards to logic relations in digital forms, a set of rules for symbolic manipulation is needed in order to solve for the unknowns.A set of rules formulated by the English mathematician
George Boole
describe certain propositions whoseoutcome would be either
true or false
. With regard to digital logic, these rules are used to describe circuitswhose state can be either,
1 (true) or 0 (false)
. In order to fully understand this, the relation between theAND gate,OR gateand NOT gateoperations should be appreciated. A number of rules can be derived from these relations as Table 1 demonstrates.
P1: X = 0 or X = 1
P2: 0 . 0 = 0
P3: 1 + 1 = 1
P4: 0 + 0 = 0
P5: 1 . 1 = 1
P6: 1 . 0 = 0 . 1 = 0
P7: 1 + 0 = 0 + 1 = 1Table 1: Boolean Postulates
Laws of Boolean Algebra:
Table 2shows the basic Boolean laws. Note that every law has two expressions, (a) and (b). This is known as
duality
. These are obtained by changing every AND(.) to OR(+), every OR(+) to AND(.) and all 1's to 0's andvice-versa.It has become conventional to drop the
.
(AND symbol) i.e. A
.
B is written as AB.
T1 : Commutative Law
(a)
A + B = B + A
(b)
A B = B A

T2 : Associate Law
(a)
(A + B) + C = A + (B + C)
(b)
(A B) C = A (B C)

T3 : Distributive Law
(a)
A (B + C) = A B + A C
(b)
A + (B C) = (A + B) (A + C)

T4 : Identity Law
(a)
A + A = A
(b)
A A = A

T5 :
(a)(b)
T6 : Redundance Law
(a)
A + A B = A
(b)
A (A + B) = A

T7 :
(a)
0 + A = A
(b)
0 A = 0

T8 :
(a)
1 + A = 1
(b)
1 A = A

T9 :
1

(a)(b)
T10 :
(a)(b)
T11 : De Morgan's Theorem
(a)(b)
Table 2: Boolean Laws

Examples
Prove T10 : (a)(1) Algebraically:(2) Using the truth table:Using the laws given above, complicated expressions can be simplified.
Problems
(a) Prove T10(b).2

(b) Copy or print out the truth table below and use it to prove T11: (a) and (b).
(a)(b)
Numerical Representation
Take as an example the truth table of a three-variable function as shown below. Three variables, each of which can take the values 0 or 1, yields eight possible combinations of values for which the function may betrue. These eight combinations are listed in ascending binary order and the equivalent decimal value is alsoshown in the table.DecimalValueABCf 0000110010201013011141000510106110071111The function has a value 1 for the combinations shown, therefore:......(1)This can also be written as:f(A, B, C) = 000 + 010 + 011 + 111 Note that the summation sign indicates that the termsare "OR 'ed" together. The function can be further  reduced to the form:
3