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Synchronous Machines

Synchronous Machines

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Published by: Insane Clown Prince on May 26, 2010
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07/18/2013

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Synchronous machines
Hans-Friedrich Hoyer: Institut für berufliche Entwicklung e.V.Berlin.
4.1. Operating principles
4.1.1. Synchronous generator 
Alternating-voltage generator 
A sine-shaped alternating voltage can be generated very simply by utilising the arrangement set out inFigure 30 by means of the induction effect (U
o
= c · ' · n).The sine-shaped voltage is attained through a conductor loop in the parallel homogeneous magneticfield. The conductor loop ends are connected to the slip ring and the voltage is fed to the operatingmeans by carbon brushes.
Figure 30 Model of an alternating voltage generator (inner-pole machine)
1 Current direction
The same effect is produced if a stationary induction coil is shifted to within the sphere of a rotatingmagnet.
 
Figure 31 Model of an alternating voltage generator (external pole machine)
The voltage induction in the synchronous generator can be attained by the generation of a magnetic flowin
stationary stators and rotating induction winding (external pole machine), or 
in the rotating magnetic stand and stationary induction winding in the stator (inner-polemachine).Every rotation of the conductor loop induces a period of alternating voltage. Where the rotation ensueswithin a second there is one period per second, that is to say, a frequency of one Hz. Given n rotationsper minute, that is to say n/60 rotations per second, there is initially a frequency of This equation, moreover, shows that proportionality prevails between the frequency of the generatedvoltage and the speed. This explains the name "synchronous generator".Where a four-pole arrangement (two north poles along with two south poles) is employed, there arises aperiod of alternating voltage in the event of a semi-rotation of the magnets.
 
Figure 32 Interdependence of pole pair number and frequency in a synchronous generator 
(1) Two-pole generator, (2) Four-pole generator 
1 Winding beginning, 2 Winding end, 3 Voltage, 4 A cycle 5 A rotation = two cycles, 6 A rotation = onecycle, 7 Coil 8 Coil connectionThe following then applies:
p = pole pair number p = one two-pole machinep = two four-pole machine etc.Thus, the greatest speed at which f = 50 Hz is therefore n = 3000 rpm (p = 1). Three-phase generator Figure 33 initially depicts the basic arrangement of a two phase alternating voltage generator.

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