(c). What is random sampling?Answer –c)
. Random Sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is alsoknown as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selectionfor each population element. It is used when generalization is the objective of study, and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of populationparameters is required. The cost and time required is high hence the benefitderived from it should justify the costs.
(d). Rank order correlation?Answer –d).
Charles Edward Spearman, a British psychologist devised amethod for measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks givento the observations. This method is adopted when the variables are notcapable of quantitative measurements like intelligence, beauty etc. in suchcases, it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place insuch variables. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful.Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is given byr
= 1- 6 D
/ n (n2-1)Where D is the difference between ranks and n, number of pairs correlated.
Question -2). Elaborate the format of a research report touching brieflyon the mechanics of writing.Answer -2)
Communicate to a Specific Audience
: The first step is to knowthe audience, its background, and its objectives. Most effective presentationsseem live conversations or memos to a particular person as opposed to anamorphous group. Audience identification affects presentation decisions suchas selecting the material to be included and the level of presentation.Excessive detail or material presented at too low a level can be boring. Theaudience can become irritated when material perceived as relevant isexcluded or the material is presented at too high level. In an oral presentation,the presenter can ask audience whether they already know some of thematerial.Frequently, a presentation must be addressed to two or more differentaudiences. There are ways to deal with such a problem. In a writtenpresentation, an executive summary at the outset can provide an overview of the conclusions for the benefit of those in the audience who are not interestedin details. The presentation must respect the audience’s time constraints. Anappendix can be used to reach some people selectively, without distracting theothers. Sometimes introduction to a chapter or a section can convey the