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Mb0034 - Research logy

Mb0034 - Research logy

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Published by Sudha Amit Thakur

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Published by: Sudha Amit Thakur on May 26, 2010
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ASSIGNMENT SET – 2RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - MB0034Question -1). Write a short note on the following:(a). Null HypothesisAnswer –a)
Null hypothesis
is a hypothesis (within thefrequentistcontext of statistical hypothesis testing) that might be falsified using a test of observeddata. Such a test works by formulating a null hypothesis, collecting data, andcalculating a measure of how probable that data was assuming the nullhypothesis were true. If the data appears very improbable (usually defined asa type of data that should be observed less than 5% of the time) then theexperimenter concludes that the null hypothesis is false. If the data looksreasonable under the null hypothesis, then no conclusion is made. The nullhypothesis could be true, or it could still be false; the data gives insufficentevidence to make any conclusion. The null hypothesis typically proposes ageneral or default position, such as that there is no relationship between twoquantities, or that there is no difference between a treatment and the control.The term was originally coined byEnglish geneticistand statisticianRonald  Fisher .In some versions of statistical hypothesis testing (such as developed byJerzy NeymanandEgon Pearson), the null hypothesis is tested against an alternative hypothesis. This alternative may or may not be the logical negationof the null hypothesis. The use of alternative hypotheses was not part of Ronald Fisher'sformulation of statistical hypothesis testing, though alternativehypotheses are standardly used today.
(b). What is exploratory research?Answer –b)
. It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. Itis ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usuallytakes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be togenerate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with theproblem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible toattempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “Atthe first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at thesecond, the discovery of relationships between variables.”
(c). What is random sampling?Answer –c)
. Random Sampling is based on the theory of probability. It is alsoknown as random sampling. It provides a known nonzero chance of selectionfor each population element. It is used when generalization is the objective of study, and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of populationparameters is required. The cost and time required is high hence the benefitderived from it should justify the costs.
(d). Rank order correlation?Answer –d).
Charles Edward Spearman, a British psychologist devised amethod for measuring correlation between two variables based on ranks givento the observations. This method is adopted when the variables are notcapable of quantitative measurements like intelligence, beauty etc. in suchcases, it is impossible to assign numerical values for change taking place insuch variables. It is in such cases rank correlation is useful.Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is given by
= 1- 6 D
/ n (n2-1)Where D is the difference between ranks and n, number of pairs correlated.
Question -2). Elaborate the format of a research report touching brieflyon the mechanics of writing.Answer -2)
Communicate to a Specific Audience
: The first step is to knowthe audience, its background, and its objectives. Most effective presentationsseem live conversations or memos to a particular person as opposed to anamorphous group. Audience identification affects presentation decisions suchas selecting the material to be included and the level of presentation.Excessive detail or material presented at too low a level can be boring. Theaudience can become irritated when material perceived as relevant isexcluded or the material is presented at too high level. In an oral presentation,the presenter can ask audience whether they already know some of thematerial.Frequently, a presentation must be addressed to two or more differentaudiences. There are ways to deal with such a problem. In a writtenpresentation, an executive summary at the outset can provide an overview of the conclusions for the benefit of those in the audience who are not interestedin details. The presentation must respect the audience’s time constraints. Anappendix can be used to reach some people selectively, without distracting theothers. Sometimes introduction to a chapter or a section can convey the
nature of the contents, which certain audiences may bypass. In an oralpresentation, the presence of multiple audiences should be recognized.
Structure the Presentation
: Each piece of presentation should fit into thewhole, just as individual pieces fit into a jigsaw puzzle. The audience shouldnot be muttering. The solution to this is to provide a well-defined structure. Thestructure should include an introduction, a body, and a summary. Further,each of the major sections should be structured similarly. The precept is to tellthe audience what you are going to say, say it and then tell them what yousaid. Sometimes you want to withhold the conclusion to create interest.Introduction should play several roles. First, it should provide audienceinterest. A second function is to identify the presentation’s central idea or objective. Third, it should provide a road map to the rest of the presentation sothat the audience can picture its organisation and flow.It is better to divide the body of the presentation into two to five parts. Theaudience will be able to absorb only so much information. If that informationcan be aggregated into chunks, it will be easier to assimilate. Sometimes thepoints to be made cannot be combined easily or naturally. In that case, it isnecessary to use a longer list. One way to structure the presentation is by theresearch questions. Another method that is often useful when presenting theresearch proposal is to base it on the research process. The most usefulpresentations will include a statement of implications and recommendationsrelevant to the research purpose. However, when researcher lacks informationabout the total situation because the research study addresses only a limitedaspect of it, the ability to generate recommendations may be limited.The purpose of the presentation summary is to identify and underline theimportant points of the presentations and to provide some repetition of their content. The summary should support the presentation communicationobjectives by helping the audience to retain the key parts of the content. Theaudience should feel that there is a natural flow from one section to another.
Create Audience Interest:
The audience should be motivated to read or listento the presentation’s major parts and to the individual elements of each sectionthe audience should know why the presentation is relevant to them and whyeach section was included. A section that cannot hold interest should beexcluded or relegated to appendix.The research purpose and objectives are good vehicles to provide motivation.The research purpose should specify decisions to be made and should relateto the research questions. A presentation that focuses on those researchquestions and their associated hypothesis will naturally be tied to relevantdecisions and hold audience interest. In contrast, a presentation that attempts

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