Glossary of Term
Upper zone of
in higher latitude locations that experiences daily and seasonalfreeze-thaw cycles.
Active Remote Sensing
provides its own source of
to illuminate the object understudy. Radar is an exampleof an active remote sensing device.
Is the amount of water that is actually removed from a surface due to the processes of
Actual Mixing Ratio
Another term used to describe
(1) Evolutionary adaptation - a genetically based characteristic expressed by a livingorganism. Particular adaptations found in
become frequent and dominantif they enhance an individual's ability to survive in the
.(2) Physiological adaptation - change in an organism's physiology as a result of exposure to some environmental condition.
of a number of new
from one or a few ancestor species over many thousands or millions of years. Normally occurs after a
createsa number of vacant
or when a radical change in the environment produces new ecological niches.
A process in which
does not enter or leave a system. In the atmospheric sciences,adiabatic processes are often used to model internal energy changes in rising anddescending parcels of air in the
. When a parcel of air rises in expands because of a reduction in
. If no other non-adiabatic processes occur (likecondensation, evaporation and radiation), expansion causes the parcel of air to cool ata set rate of 0.98° Celsius per 100 meters. The opposite occurs when a parcel of air descends in the atmosphere. The air in a descending parcel becomes compressed.Compression causes the temperature within the parcel to increase at a rate of 0.98°Celsius per 100 meters.
The cooling of a rising parcel of air due to
Advection involves the transfer of
by means of horizontal mass motionsthrough a medium.
Physical Geography Textbook