1. Tips: When reading French, as with English, you will inevitably come across a
whole host of pronouns! In particular, when engaging French, you will want to
pay attention to 4 different types of pronouns. To remember these, I have created
an acronym from an Old French word, (le) SOIR, which means \u201cevening\u201d or
\u201cdarkness.\u201d To help myself remember the 4 types, I use the mnemonic device
\u201cDark Pronouns.\u201d Here are the different types (using English examples) followed-
up with a brief explanation of each, then a table of the French pronouns:
a.Subject Pronouns (SP): Think of the \u201cSP\u201d as replacing the subject noun
(SN). For example, in the sentence \u201cDan is running fast\u201d you could
replace the subject (Dan) with the pronoun \u201cHe\u201d and change the sentence
to: \u201cHe is running fast.\u201d Here, \u201cHe\u201d is the SP replacing the SN.
b.Object Pronouns (OP): Think of the \u201cOP\u201d as replacing the object noun (ON). For example, in the sentence \u201cDan loves Shelly very much\u201d you could replace the object (Shelly) with the pronoun \u201cher\u201d and this would change the sentence to: \u201cDan loves her very much.\u201d Here, \u201cher\u201d is the OP replacing the ON.
a. Direct & Indirect OP: One easy way to differentiate
between Direct Objects and Indirect Objects in
French is simply think about the IO having the word
\u201cto\u201d before it while the DO does not. Some English
examples would be:
c.Independent Pronouns (IP): When we think about IP in French, we should
think about these types of pronouns as stressors or being emphatic. For
instance, in English, a normal sentence might be: I am the greatest. If we
wanted to add emphasis to the sentence to make it stronger than it already
is, we would use the pronoun \u201cMe\u201d at the beginning of the declaration as
follows: \u201cMe, I am the greatest.\u201d The same phenomenon occurs in
French! The IP can also be used: 1) When the pronoun has no verb, 2)
After prepositions when referring to a person or persons, 3) Following
C\u2019est, 4) After avoir affaire a, etre a, faire attention a, penser a, se fier a,
d.Relative Pronouns (RP): In French, the RP can function in a number of
ways, that is, as a subject, direct object or the object of a preposition.
Basically, the RP serves to connect a sentence\u2019s main clause to a
dependent clause (e.g. a clause that cannot stand alone). Because this is
such an important matter we shall withhold talking more about it here and
give it its own lesson in the near future.
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