Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
20Activity
P. 1
Retscreen PV eg

Retscreen PV eg

Ratings: (0)|Views: 169 |Likes:
Published by divaofsn7714

More info:

Published by: divaofsn7714 on May 27, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/15/2013

pdf

text

original

 
PHOTOVOLTAICPROJECT ANALYSIS
CHAPTER
CLEAN ENERGY PROJECT ANALYSIS:
RETS
CREEN
®
ENGINEERING & CASES TEXTBOOK 
Disclaimer
This publication is distributed for informationalpurposes only and does not necessarily reflectthe
views of the Government of Canada
norconstitute an endorsement of any commercialproduct or person. Neither Canada, nor itsministers,
officers, employees and agents make
any warranty in respect to this publication norassume any liability arising out of thispublication.
© Minister of NaturalResources Canada 2001 - 2004.
www.retscreen.net
RETScreen
®
International
Clean Energy Decision Support Centre
 
ISBN: 0-662-35672-1Catalogue no.: M39-99/2003E-PDF© Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 - 2004.
 
PV.3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 PHOTOVOLTAIC BACKGROUND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1 Description of Photovoltaic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.1 PV modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.1.2 Batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.1.3 Power conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.1.4 Generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.1.5 Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Photovoltaic Application Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.1 On-grid applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2.2 Off-grid applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.2.3 Water pumping applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 RETSCREEN PHOTOVOLTAIC PROJECT MODEL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1 Basics of Solar Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.1 Declination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.1.2 Solar hour angle and sunset hour angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.1.3 Extraterrestrial radiation and clearness index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Tilted Irradiance Calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1 Description of algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.2.2 Calculation of hourly global and diffuse irradiance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.2.3 Calculation of hourly irradiance in the plane of the PV array. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.2.4 Summation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3 PV Array Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3.1 Calculation of average efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.3.2 Other corrections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4 On-Grid Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.5 Off-Grid Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.5.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.5.2 Load calculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.5.3 Utilisability method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262.5.4 Energy going through the battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.5.5 Array, battery and genset sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.6 Water Pumping Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.7 Validation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.7.1 Validation of tilted irradiance calculation compared with an hourly model. . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.7.2 Validation of off-grid model compared with an hourly model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.8 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Activity (20)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Nam Sanchun liked this
rmm99rmm99 liked this
malahmadi liked this
adoptvn liked this
vivek1280 liked this
vivek1280 liked this
Luis Julian liked this
Tandat Ly liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->