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Define signal.
A signal is a set of information or data. (Signal is the function of independent variable time).Example: telephone and TV signal.
Define system.
A system is an entity that processes a set of signals to yield another set of signals.
Classify signal.
Signals are classified as-1.Analog and digital signal2.Continuous time and discrete- time signal3.Periodic and aperiodic signal4.Energy and power signal5.Deterministic and probabilistic signals
1. Analog and Digital Signal:
Analog signal: a signal whose amplitude can take on any value in a continuous range is an analog signal.An analog signal can take on an infinite number of values.
Example:
Music, temperature variation throughout the day as displayed on a mercury thermometer.Digital Signal: A signal whose amplitude can take on only a finite number of values.
Example:
signals from computer.
2. Continuous time and discrete time signals:
A signal that is specified for every value of t is a continuous – time signal.
Example:
Telephone and video camera outputs are continuous time signal.A signal that is specified for only at discrete values of t is a discrete time signal.
Example:
Monthly sales of a corporation, Quarterly gross national product are examples of discrete-time signals.
3. Periodic and Aperiodic signal:
Any continuous time signal that satisfies the condition – x( t ) = x ( t + nT )Where, n = 1, 2, 3 T = Fundamental period.Example:All trigonometric functions ate best example of periodic function. Another periodic function is shown inAny continuous time signal which does not satisfies the condition (1) , i.e. not periodic is called aperiodicsignal.
4. Energy and Power signal:

a signal with finite energy is an energy signal.A signal with finite and non-zero power is called power signal.
5. Deterministic and Random signal:
A signal whose physical description is known completely, in either a mathematical form or a graphic formis a deterministic signal.1

A signal which is known by only in terms of probabilistic description, such as mean value, mean squaredvalue, rather than its complete mathematical or graphical description is a random signal.
What are the basic components of any communication system?
There are three basic components of any communication system. They are-
Transmitter
Channel.
Define – channel BW.
The BW of a channel is the range of frequencies that it can transmit with reasonable fidelity.
Is continuous time signal is an analog and discrete time signal is a digital signal?
Not necessarily.Continuous time and discrete time signal quantify the nature of a signal along time axis whereas,Analog and Digital signal quantify the nature of the signal amplitude.
Define Transducer.
Transducer transforms one form of energy into another form of energy. Mobile phone is an example of transducer because it changes EM signal into electrical signal.
Why digital communication system is advantageous over analog communication system?
Because – i.Digital ckt is relatively inexpensiveii.Digital systems are easy to design and can be fabricated on IC chips (so small size).iii.Information storage is easy.iv.Operation can programmable to updatev.Privacy is preserved by encryptionvi.It is easy to multiplex several digital signalsvii.Noise does not accumulate from repeater to repeater viii.Error detection and correction schemes are available
What are the Disadvantages of digital communication system?
More BW is required and synchronization is required.
What are the analog to digital signal conversion processes?
Sampling, quantization and coding.
Define Sampling theorem.
Sampling Theorem / Nyquist theorem:"If the maximum frequency of any signal spectrum is B (Hz), then the signal can be reconstructed from itssamples taken at the rate of not less than 2B samples per second."i.e. the sampling rate must be at least two times the highest frequency contained in the signal
.
Define – Sampling process:
Continuous-time signal is converted to Discrete-time signal obtained by taking samples of the continuous-time signal at discrete-time instants.
Define – Quantization process.
The sampled signal is rounded off to the nearest value which is permitted for transmission. The roundingoff process is called quantization. Quantization converts discrete time continuous valued signal intodiscrete time discrete valued signal.
Define –coding process.
In the coding process, each discrete value is represented by a b-bit binary sequence.
How analog signal can be obtained from digital signal? / DA conversion process?
From the digital system analog signal may be recovered from the flat-top PAM signal by using low-pass-filter.Define – Randomness.Randomness means unpredictability or uncertainty of the outcome.2
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