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GSM In Train Pathloss

GSM In Train Pathloss

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Published by Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI

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Published by: Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI on May 27, 2010
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Key words : in-train, penetration loss, propagation___________________________________________________
In-Train Penetration Loss and Design Recommendations for UMTSNetwork Deployment
Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI, December 2002
Author : Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI____________________________________________________
Key words : in-train, penetration loss, propagation___________________________________________________
Scope of work
This document aims at providing a clear insight into in-train penetration loss to beused for design purposes. It also encompasses case studies performed within liveNetwork Operators, along with a brief theoretical description of the propagationissues related to the upper UHF frequency band. More importantly, this documentwill be used as a reliable reference for RANN/Ben/Dutchtone UMTS Network deployment so that all the parties will use the same RF parameters, andcomprehend the theoretical and practical reasons behind the adopted choice. Thisshould avoid further misunderstanding and consolidates the effective collaborationbetween the parties.
Needless to say if the in-train penetration is important in a Cellular network Indeed, as the service is based on mobility and the subscribers are theoreticallysupposed to be anywhere, it is of great importance to consider the in-trainpenetration issues. Several studies have been conducted so far in theGSM900/GSM1800 bands but a few of them only in the UMTS band (around 2GHz). In a microcellular environment, such as in street canyons and indoors theRF signal behaves similarly in both UMTS and GSM1800 bands. This is due tothe fact that the higher the frequency the better is the propagation. We can easilyexplain this phenomenon by the fact the scattering characteristics of microwavesignals tend to an asmptotic behavior. Reflection coefficient of semi-conductivematerials tend to the unit, which explains the guided-wave behaviour in confinedmedia (Tunnels, street canyons, airport terminals, etc.). However, the onlycharacteristic that should make the difference between the two systems is thebandwidth when modulation is considered, but when pure RF carriers aretransmitted GSM1800 and UMTS have the same characteristics.This document provides the propagation assumptions made to cope with the widerrange of cases that might be encountered in a live UMTS network. Namely,grazing incidence (near 0 degree) and perpendicular incidence (near 90 degrees)will be explained and statistical results, performed on a real live network, will bepresented.
Problem Statement
Figure 1 depicts the basic assumptions made for the sake of in-train penetrationstudy :
Author : Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI____________________________________________________
Key words : in-train, penetration loss, propagation___________________________________________________
TrainwindowsGrazing incidenceline (dashed line)Incidence angle is a random variable wich is uniformly distributedbetween 0 and 180 degrees
Transmitting Node BAntenna (assumed as aHuyghens source)
When the trains moves within a cell coverage area the propagation is proved to bein grazing incidence, except for a few range of random angles. Therefore, thepenetration loss is maximum. In a tunnel, however, in case where leaky-feedersare deployed, the propagation is under 90 degrees, which gives better in-traincoverage. Let us now take account of the the angular spread combined to the lossthrough windows.In many cases, and especially in modern fast-speed trains, the glass is mixed witha semi-metallic material. This obviously leads to a more reflected energy andtherefore less transmitted energy within the train wagon, which is not the desiredsituation for in-train coverage.
High in-train losszone (very lowincidence angles)High in-train losszone (very lowincidence angles)Low in-trainloss Zone
For our design purposes worst-case senarios are considered. In other words, thepenetration loss values are taken from grazing incidence and not fromperpendicular incidence because the latter leads to under-dimensioning thenumber of sites required.
Studies in France
Author : Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI____________________________________________________

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