Key words : in-train, penetration loss, propagation___________________________________________________
TrainwindowsGrazing incidenceline (dashed line)Incidence angle is a random variable wich is uniformly distributedbetween 0 and 180 degrees
Transmitting Node BAntenna (assumed as aHuyghens source)
When the trains moves within a cell coverage area the propagation is proved to bein grazing incidence, except for a few range of random angles. Therefore, thepenetration loss is maximum. In a tunnel, however, in case where leaky-feedersare deployed, the propagation is under 90 degrees, which gives better in-traincoverage. Let us now take account of the the angular spread combined to the lossthrough windows.In many cases, and especially in modern fast-speed trains, the glass is mixed witha semi-metallic material. This obviously leads to a more reflected energy andtherefore less transmitted energy within the train wagon, which is not the desiredsituation for in-train coverage.
High in-train losszone (very lowincidence angles)High in-train losszone (very lowincidence angles)Low in-trainloss Zone
For our design purposes worst-case senarios are considered. In other words, thepenetration loss values are taken from grazing incidence and not fromperpendicular incidence because the latter leads to under-dimensioning thenumber of sites required.
Studies in France
Author : Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI____________________________________________________