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Fast Paxos - 2006

Fast Paxos - 2006

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Fast Paxos
Leslie Lamport14 July 2005Revised 18 January 2006Minor revision 14 April 2006MSR-TR-2005-112
To appear in
Distributed Computing 
.Microsoft ResearchMicrosoft CorporationOne Microsoft WayRedmond, WA 98052
http://www.research.microsoft.com
 
Abstract
As used in practice, traditional consensus algorithms require threemessage delays before any process can learn the chosen value. FastPaxos is an extension of the classic Paxos algorithm that allows thevalue to be learned in two message delays. How and why the algo-rithm works are explained informally, and a TLA
+
specification of thealgorithm appears as an appendix.
 
Contents
1 Introduction 12 The Classic Paxos Algorithm 2
2.1 The Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22.2 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42.2.1 The Basic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42.2.2 Picking a Value in Phase 2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62.3 Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92.3.1 The Progress Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92.3.2 The Complete Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112.3.3 Proof of Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112.4 Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132.4.1 Reducing the Number of Messages . . . . . . . . . . .132.4.2 The Cost of Classic Paxos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3 Making Paxos Fast 16
3.1 The Basic Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163.2 Collision Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193.3 Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213.4 Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233.4.1 Choosing Quorums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233.4.2 Avoiding Collisions in Uncoordinated Recovery . . . .233.4.3 The Cost of Fast Paxos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
4 Conclusion 26Acknowledgment 27References 27Appendix The Formal Specication 29

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