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Structures

Structures

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Published by ivymolakeng1443

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Published by: ivymolakeng1443 on May 28, 2010
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10/03/2010

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STRUCTURES
Structures are al around you. Structures
support, protect and enclose spacesor objects
. People must fulfill the three basic needs of food, clothing and shelter inorder to survive. In this page you will learn about structures that shelter us.“Houses fulfill our basic need for shelter”
A.CLASSIFICATION OF STRUCTURES
Structures can be classified into three groups:
1. FRAME STRUCTURES.
Consists of many rigid rods or bars that are joined together by joints. They arealso called skeletal structures or space frames.E.g crane roo
2. SHELL STRUCTURES
 The shape spreads the loads throughout the structures. They rely on theirshapes for strength.e.g.
 
Hat car3.
MASS STRUCTURES
Consists of similar materials that are piled together to form a whole.e.gPyramids mountains
A.FORCES EXERTED ON STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS.Force
is a push or a pull.
EXTERNAL FORCES:
Static or dead load:
is a permanent force acting on a structure. Thisincludes the weight of the structure itself and the stationary parts it supports.
Dynamic:
 
is a changing, non-permanent force that acts on structures.
Tension:
 
Forces stretch the material by pulling its ends apart.
Compression:
 
forces crush a material by squeezing it together.
Bending force:
 
is a combination of tension and compression. It acts at an angle to a structural member causing it to bend unless the causing it to bend.
Torsion:
 
forces twist a material by turning the ends in oppositedirections.
Shear force:
 
bend or tear a material by pushing and pulling different  parts in opposite directions at the same time.
A.STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.
Members are the parts that make up a structure.
 
Tent. Pillars.Suspension bridge All these figures above are all different; some of their structuralmembers are similar.Arches: (stone and iron)
From the roman times until the beginning of the industrial revolution in the early1700, the arch was the main type of bridge to be built. These bridges were built of stones because stone has good compressivestrength and many of these antique arches can still be seen today. Stone archesbridges had gradually improved so that longer, lower arches could be built.Fewer arches were needed to cross a river. There were different types of archbridges- over, through and under.
Buttresses:
Struts:Triangles which hold a structure in place by pushing (pressing) against it.Guys:Ropes or cable to hold a structure in place by pulling on it.Stay:

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