Consists of similar materials that are piled together to form a whole.e.gPyramids mountains
A.FORCES EXERTED ON STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS.Force
is a push or a pull.
Static or dead load:
is a permanent force acting on a structure. Thisincludes the weight of the structure itself and the stationary parts it supports.
is a changing, non-permanent force that acts on structures.
Forces stretch the material by pulling its ends apart.
forces crush a material by squeezing it together.
is a combination of tension and compression. It acts at an angle to a structural member causing it to bend unless the causing it to bend.
forces twist a material by turning the ends in oppositedirections.
bend or tear a material by pushing and pulling different parts in opposite directions at the same time.
Members are the parts that make up a structure.