Poultry of all ages are susceptible to the effects of this organism. Chickens,turkeys, pigeons, pheasants, quail and grouse are species most commonlyaffected as well as other domestic animals and humans. The Candida organismis widely spread throughout the poultry producing areas of the world.Moniliasis is transmitted by ingestion of the causative organism in infected feed,water or environment. Unsanitary and unclean water troughs are an excellentreservoir of the Candida organism. The disease does not however, spreaddirectly from bird to bird. The organism grows especially well on corn, so infectioncan be introduced by feeding moldy feed.This malady produces no specific symptoms. Young birds become listless, pale,show ruffled feathers and appear unthrifty. Affected caged layer hens becomeobese and anemic. Some birds exhibit a vent inflammation that resembles adiarrhea induced condition having whitish incrustations of the feathers and skinaround the area. Feed consumption may increase by ten to twenty percent.Gross lesions are mostly confined to the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. Thecrop and proventriculus have whitish thickened areas that are often described ashaving a "turkish towel" appearance. Erosion of the lining of the proventriculusand gizzard is commonly observed, as well as an inflammation of the intestines.Diagnosis is based on history and typical lesions in the flock. Confirmation of thecondition is by isolation and laboratory identification of the
organism.Treatment of the flock with an antimycotic drug will control the infection. Manybroad spectrum antibiotics will enhance this disease; therefore they should notbe used until after control of this condition is completed. Addition of Nystatin (100g/Ton) or copper sulfate (2-3 lb/Ton) to the feed for seven to ten days shouldcontrol moniliasis.Once introduced into the flock, moniliasis is perpetuated by suboptimalmanagement conditions. Preventative measures include the continual use of mold inhibitors in the feed, proper feed handling and storage, daily cleaning andsanitizing of the watering system and periodic stirring and/or replacement of wetlitter areas to prevent caking. An inexpensive, yet effective, water treatment is thecontinuous addition of household chlorine bleach to the drinking water at the rateof five parts per million (ppm).Use of liquid toxin binder and simultaneous use of immunomodulater and adaptogen and multivitamin B complex helps to reducesthe loss of production.
1. Diseases of Poultry, Eds. Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, Reid WM, Yoder HWJr., Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 9th ed., 1991