, otherwise known as enteric fever, is an acute illness associated withfever caused by the
is a short, plump, gram negative rodthat is flagellated and actively motile. Contaminated food or water is the common medium of contagion.The disease follows four stages. The first stage is known as incubation period, usually 10-14 days in occurrence. In this stage generalization of the infection occurs. In the second stage,aggregation of the macrophages and edema in focal areas indicates bacterial localization(embolization) and resultant toxic injury which disappear after few days. The third stage of disease is dominated by effects of local bacterial injury especially in the intestinal tract,mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. The fourth stage, or the stage of lysis, is the stagewherein the infectious process is gradually overcome. Symptoms slowly disappear and thetemperature gradually returns to normal.The symptoms of typhoid fever include high fever, chills, cough, muscle pain, weakness,stomach pain, headache and a rash made up of flat, rose-colored spots. Diarrhea is a lesscommon symptom of a typhoid fever, although it is a gastrointestinal disease. Sometimes thereare mental changes, know as ‘
. A characteristic feature of typhoid psychosisis plucking at the bedclothes if patient is confined to bed.Risk factors for acquiring typhoid fever likely include improper food handling, eatingfood from outside sources like carinderia, drinking contaminated water, poor sanitation and even poor hygiene practices. War and natural disasters as well as weak, non existent of health careinfrastructure may also contribute. Both genders do have equal chances on acquiring suchdisease. Asian, African and Americans are at greatest risks of acquiring the disease sincegeographical locations play a part.Complications of typhoid fever are secondary conditions, symptoms, or other disordersthat are caused by typhoid fever. Complications include overwhelming infection, pneumonia,intestinal bleeding, and intestinal perforation may eventually lead to death.Typhoid fever is one of the most protean of all bacterial diseases thus laboratory procedures are usually depended on to confirm or disprove suspicion of such disease. The placeof blood culture, serologic studies and bacteriologic examination feces and urine are useful inestablishing the diagnosis. Agglutination (Widal) for typhoid fever is done to determine antibodyresponse against different antigenic fractions of organisms.Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics which kill the
bacteria. Severalantibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. The choice of antibiotics needs to beguided by identifying the geographic region where the organism was acquired and the results of cultures once available. Two new vaccines are currently licensed and widely used worldwide, asubunit (Vi PS) vaccine administered by the intramuscular route and a live attenuated S typhistrain (Ty21a) for oral immunization.In most cases, typhoid fever is managed at home with antibiotics and bed
rest. For hospitalized patients, effective antibiotics, good
nursing care, adequate nutrition, careful attentionto fluid
and electrolyte balance, and prompt recognition and treatment
of complications arestrategies to avert the possibility of death.I choose this topic since it catches my interest from the time being I was able to handle patient having typhoid fever. It gives me the motivation to look for the things that governs suchdisease. Typhoid fever as my case study allows me to find for ways to contribute something for the alleviation of the condition of its victims may it be in my own little ways perhaps. May thiscase study of mine serves as advent to understand more fully the existence of such disease andthe proper interventions needed to be rendered upon to address such condition looking to a new perspective of life.