TABLE I. LTE
Access SchemeUL SC-FDMADL OFDMABandwidth 1.4,3,5,10,15,20 MHzMinimum TTI 1msecSub-carrier spacing 1.5KHzCyclic Prefix Length Short: 4.7µsec, long: 16.7µsecModulation QPSK,16QAM,64QAMSpatial Multiplexing Single layer for UL per UEUp to 4 layers for DL per UEMU-MIMO supported for ULand DLIn LTE the higher data rates are achieved by newtechnological solutions in the radio interface and accessnetwork like orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM), multiple input / multiple output (MIMO), high ratemodulation etc, which were agreed in Figure 1. LTE Release8 Features the 3GPP workshops and have been standardized(UMTS Forum, 2009). LTE uses air interface according tothe demand adaptively rather than fixed shared resources,this increases the efficiency of the air interface.
Multicarrier air interface
As specified in 3GPP Release 8, LTE uses completelynew radio access network. It uses OFDMA based modulationand multiple access scheme for the downlink and SC-FDMA(Single Carrier Frequency division multiple access) for theuplink. To achieve high data rate, relatively low cost andpower efficient hardware, OFDM based technology ischosen. SC-FDMA is similar to OFDMA and since its morepower efficient, it can be used in hand held devices withbattery power. In OFDMA, 20 MHz channel is subdividedinto many sub channels and are assigned to different users.These sub channels are used to send data simultaneouslygenerating high data throughput. The high throughput is alsorelated to modulation of data, different modulationtechniques are used to transmit the data. They are QPSK,16QAM, and 64QAM for downlink and BPSK, QPSK,8PSK and 16QAM for uplink.
MIMO basically make use of multiple antennas to senddata and multiple antennas to receive. Transmission is doneby converting serial bit stream into multiple parallel substreams and sending via multiple antennas using same timeslot and same frequency band. Receiver separates the substreams from mixed signals. Thus high data throughput isachieved. MIMO minimizes the effect of noise also and
increases the utilization of spectrum. Shannon’s law is
maintained in each individual radio link but collectivelyMIMO can exceed it. Information loss by a singletransmission can be reduced by sending same information byusing multiple antennas for transmission and multipleantennas for receiving.
Bandwidth scalability and Multi Band
LTE system provides flexible bandwidth utilization withdifferent carrier bandwidths ranging from 1.25 MHz to20MHz (more specifically: 1.4 MHz, 5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz). 15 KHz sub carrier spacingremains same for all the above options. LTE can be rolledout in
any 3GPP system’s frequency bands which include
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000)core bands (1.9-2GHz), its extension bands (2.5GHz) as wellas 850-900MHz, 1800 MHz and Advanced WirelessServices spectrum (1.7- 2.1GHz). 900 MHz frequencies canbe used in rural areas in which the optimal cell sizes can belesser but where as acceptable performance can be achievedfor cell sizes of many kilometers. Higher frequency bandscan be used in urban areas where as cell sizes will be smallerbut provides high speed mobility. But because of thiscomplex situation arises for the operators because of theinterference between various generations and differenttechnologies coexisting in particular frequency bands.Interference is inevitable because of closeness of GSM900band and UMTS900 band. In future 2G, 3G and LTEnetworks have to coexist and this causes more co-channeland adjacent channel interference.
Evolved Packet Core(All IP)
Evolved Packet core (EPC) is designed for seamlessinterworking with IP based communication networks withsimplified network architecture. It is completely packedbased which provides end to end IP connection from mobiledevice to core network and vice versa. Multimedia andcircuit calls are mainly handled through converged IMS (IPMultimedia subsystem) core which is recently termed asVoLTE (voice over LTE). . IMS, was first introduced in3GPP release 5 standards, is an SIP (Session InitiationProtocol) based session and service platform to delivermultimedia applications over broadband networks. Themain challenge in VoLTE will be implementing certainminimal set to quality requirements for voice, SMS andsupplementary services. The functionalities of RNC havebeen moved to eNodeB which connects directly to evolvedpacket core. EPC offers inter working, connectivity,mobility and handover various 3GPP, 3GPP2 technologiesand also with wifi, fixed line broadband technologies etc.The network architecture is discussed in the subsequentsections.