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Introduction to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics.2848

Introduction to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics.2848

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July 14, 2004
INTRODUCTION TOLAGRANGIAN AND HAMILTONIANMECHANICSAlain J. Brizard
Department of Chemistry and PhysicsSaint Michael’s College, Colchester, VT 05439 
 
Contents
1 Introduction to the Calculus of Variations 1
1.1 Fermats Principle of Least Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Eulers First Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.2 Eulers Second Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.1.3 Snells Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.1.4 Application of Fermats Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2 Geometric Formulation of Ray Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.1 Frenet-Serret Curvature of Light Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.2 Light Propagation in Spherical Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.2.3 Geodesic Representation of Light Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.2.4 Eikonal Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.3 Brachistochrone Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2 Lagrangian Mechanics 21
2.1 Maupertuis-Jacobi Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.2 Principle of Least Action of Euler and Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.2.1 Generalized Coordinates in Configuration Space . . . . . . . . . . . 232.2.2 Constrained Motion on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.2.3 Euler-Lagrange Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.3 Lagrangian Mechanics in Configuration Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.3.1 Example I: Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27i
 
ii
CONTENTS 
2.3.2 Example II: Bead on a Rotating Hoop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282.3.3 Example III: Rotating Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.3.4 Example IV: Compound Atwood Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.3.5 Example V: Pendulum with Oscillating Fulcrum . . . . . . . . . . . 332.4 Symmetries and Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352.4.1 Energy Conservation Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4.2 Momentum Conservation Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4.3 Invariance Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.4.4 Lagrangian Mechanics with Symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.4.5 Routh’s Procedure for Eliminating Ignorable Coordinates . . . . . . 392.5 Lagrangian Mechanics in the Center-of-Mass Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3 Hamiltonian Mechanics 45
3.1 Canonical Hamiltons Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453.2 Legendre Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463.3 Hamiltonian Optics and Wave-Particle Duality* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483.4 Particle Motion in an Electromagnetic Field* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493.4.1 Euler-Lagrange Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493.4.2 Energy Conservation Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503.4.3 Gauge Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.4.4 Canonical Hamiltons Equationss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.5 One-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523.5.1 Simple Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533.5.2 Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543.5.3 Constrained Motion on the Surface of a Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . 563.6 Charged Spherical Pendulum in a Magnetic Field* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573.6.1 Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573.6.2 Euler-Lagrange equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

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