equipment and manpower by expanding its organisation through the creation of new units, by upgrading and procuring new weapons systems. The primary mission of the Bangladesh Army is the classic one of defending the nation's territorial integrity against external attack. During wartime, the Bangladesh Army (and its sister services) are responsible for mobilising the nation's resources by assuming direct control over paramilitary and police forces, civilian transportation, and defense industries. In addition to its primary mission the Bangladesh Army is also constitutionally obligated to assist the civilian government during times of crisis. This role is commonly referred to as \u201caid to civilian administration\u201d. The Bangladesh Army structure is similar to many armies of the
personnel. It has specialized its peacekeeping operations capabilities around the world through participation in peacekeeping and nation building. It has created BIPSOT (Bangladesh Institute of Peace Support Operation Training) which is dedicated to training of peacekeepers for employment in all types of UNPSO (UN Peace Support Operations). This institute fulfills the requirement of UNDPKO as per General Assembly resolution which outlines \u2018the necessity and responsibility of every nation to train their armed forces before any deployment\u2019. The U.S. Military has taken keen interest and participating in this area.
and Uttar Pradesh which were part of Bengal Presidency at that time. There were hardly any Bengali soldiers recruited by British East India company after British soldiers defeated 50,000 strong Bengali army of Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah in Plassey in 1757 and later Nawab Mir Qasim at the battle of Buxar. The Battle of Buxar was fought in October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, and the combined armies of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh; and Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor.British troops engaged in the fighting numbered 7,072 comprising 857 Europeans, 5,297 sepoys and 918 Indian cavalry. Estimates of the native forces vary from 40,000 to 60,000. Lack of co-ordination among the three desperate allies, each with a different axe to grind, was responsible for their decisive debacle. This battle decided the fate of Bengal and North East India. As a result of this mutiny, there were a number of human rights violations committed by the British upon the Bengali people. Native Bengalis were forbidden from enjoying many basic freedoms and were excluded from entering into military service. This was ostensibly due to the "martial races theory" that was at the time being used by the British. This theory, however, had been mainly formulated as a result of the 1857 rebellion and it seems likely that the Bengalis were most excluded from it due to the fact that the units that mutinied were largely Bengali units. As a point of interest, later units that
fought between what was then known as East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) and West Pakistan in 1971. The structure and formation of the Bangladeshi forces during the Liberation War of 1971 was determined at the Sector Commander's Conference that was held in the week of 11-17 July, 1971. This conference was of considerable historical significance and tactical consequence, as it determined the command structure of the Bangladeshi forces throughout the conflict, as well as resolving issues surrounding the organisation of the various sectors and reinforcements. This conference was presided over by the Bangladesh interim government in exile, Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed and General M A G Osmani
, during which the retired colonel was promoted and reinstated on active duty into the armed forces of Bangladesh as its senior most official. General Osmani was thereby appointed Commander-in- Chief of all Bangladesh Forces. Lt.Col Rab was appointed as Chief of Army Staff, Squadron Leader M. Hamidullah Khan was
assigned to the largest guerilla training camp of the liberation war atCh aku lia, Bihar, as the Chief Military Representative of the Bangladesh government in exile and Wing Commander A.K. Khandker, later promoted to Group Captain was appointed as the Deputy Chief of Armed Forces. The preliminary preparation for the creation of the Bangladesh Air Force was also initiated with Khandker to be its first chief. As a result of this meeting, Bangladesh was divided into eleven sectors. These sectors were placed under the control of Sector Commanders, who would direct the guerrilla war against Pakistani forces. For better efficiency in military operations each of the sectors were also divided into a number of sub-sectors. As a point of note, the 10th Sector was directly placed under the Commander-in-Chief and included the Naval Commandos as a C-in-C\u2019s special force. Following this a period of prolonged guerilla warfare was launched by Bengali nationalists, which continued for a number of months. Then, on November 21, 1971, the Bangladesh Liberation Force handed over the full command and authority of its operations to the Indian armed forces to command during the war. Following this, a restructuring was undertaken, and the Bangladesh Armed Forces were organized into three brigades.
On December 3, 1971, (West) Pakistan launched a pre-emptive attack on the western border of India, which marked the commencement of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Finally, on December 16, 1971, after the Pakistan Army surrendered due to the indian intervention, the independent nation of Bangladesh emerged.
Bangladesh Army has expanded considerably albeit erratically since its formation on December 26, 1971. Between 1973 and 1975, the army absorbed many of the 28,000 personnel who had been detained in Pakistani jails for the duration of the Bangladesh Liberation War.
government abolished the Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini. Under Zia's rule, army expansion slowed, in part because of his campaign to purge mutinous elements and collaborators from the ranks. When Ershad assumed power in 1982, army strength had stabilized at about 70,000 troops. Starting in 1985, Ershad accelerated the transition from martial law to elected civilian government. The army then experienced another spurt in growth. As of mid-1988, it had about 90,000 troops (although some observers believed the number was closer to 80,000), triple the 1975 figure. Zia reorganized the army following the military upheavals of the mid-1970s, in part to
prevent coups and jawan uprisings. Under Zia's program, the reorganization was intended to neutralize rival factions of freedom fighters and repatriates. Bangladesh was divided into five military regions. The army - cooperating with civilian authorities while maintaining autonomy - preserved internal security and resisted possible Indian domination. Divisions coordinated their operations with paramilitary groups in their respective areas of command, and they mobilized mass support of the government.
the land of Bengal was divided and united a number of times for numerous politico-social reasons, principally based on religious and class lines. Following the departure of Britishers from the sub-continent in 1947, two newly formed, independent nations were born. These were India and Pakistan. Pakistan was divided into two sections due to geographical factor, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, but there were also major cultural differences between these two divisions, reminiscent of the entire subcontinent prior to partitioning. One of the main causes of friction in the divided Pakistan was the issue of what would be the major official language. Whilst Urdu was largely spoken by the majority in West Pakistan, in East Pakistan it was Bengali that was
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