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Water Repellent Finsihing

Water Repellent Finsihing

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Published by syed asim najam

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Published by: syed asim najam on May 30, 2010
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11/08/2012

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TEXTILE FINSHING 
TOPIC:
WATER REPELLENT FINISHES 
PREPARED BY:
SYED ASIM NAJAM (BS-Textile)
Submitted to
Dr.Hanif Memon
 
Water Repellency:
Water Repellency 
is more difficult to define because various static anddynamic tests are used to measure water repellency. Generally speakingwater repellent fabrics are those which resist being wetted by water, water drops will roll off the fabric.
A
fabric's resistance to water will depend onthe nature of the fiber surface, the porosity of the fabric and the dynamicforce behind the impacting water spray. The conditions of the test must bestated when specifying water repellency.
It
is
important to distinguishbetween water-repellent and water-proof fabrics.
Water Repellent Fabrics
have open pores and are permeable to air andwater vapor. Water-repellent fabrics will permit the passage of liquid water once hydro-static pressure
is
high enough.
 
Water-Proof Fabrics
are resistant to the penetration of water under muchhigher hydrostatic pressure than are water-repellent fabrics. These fabricshave fewer open pores and are less permeable to the passage of 
air 
andwater vapor. The more waterproof 
a
fabric, the less able
it is
to permit thepassage of air or water vapor.Waterproof 
is
an overstatement,
a
more descriptive term
is
impermeable towater. A fabric
is
made water-repellent by depositing
a
hydrophobicmaterial surface; however. Waterproofing requires filling the pores
as
well.
Fabric Construction
While the chemical finishes used for both applications are very similar, the keydifference between outerwear (rainwear) and general apparel (casual pants)applications is the requirement to pass the rain test (AATCC 35). Performance inthe rain test depends heavily on fabric construction and not only on fabric finish.A regular cotton 3/1 twill fabric (7.5 oz/yd
2
), which is typically used for casualpants, does not have a tight enough construction to pass the rain test. However,a heavier cotton fabric such as a 9.0-10.0 oz/yd
2
canvas does have a very tightconstruction and can perform successfully in the rain test with proper treatment.Another alternative is to use a specialty fabric that has very fine yarns and a verytight weave.
PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
OF
WETTING
When a drop of liquid on
a
solid surface does not spread, the drop willassume a shape that appears constant and exhibits an angle , called thecontact angle. The angle
is
characteristic of the particular liquid/solidinteraction; therefore, the equilibrium contact angle serves as an indicationof wettability of the solid by the liquid. As seen in figure 52, the interfacialforces between the liquid and vapor, liquid and solid and solid and vapor all come into play when determining whether a liquid will spread or not on
a
smooth solid surface. The equilibrium established between these forcesdetermine the contact angle 0.
Spreading of Liquids
on
Smooth Surfaces

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