are resistant to the penetration of water under muchhigher hydrostatic pressure than are water-repellent fabrics. These fabricshave fewer open pores and are less permeable to the passage of
andwater vapor. The more waterproof
fabric, the less able
to permit thepassage of air or water vapor.Waterproof
more descriptive term
impermeable towater. A fabric
made water-repellent by depositing
hydrophobicmaterial surface; however. Waterproofing requires filling the pores
While the chemical finishes used for both applications are very similar, the keydifference between outerwear (rainwear) and general apparel (casual pants)applications is the requirement to pass the rain test (AATCC 35). Performance inthe rain test depends heavily on fabric construction and not only on fabric finish.A regular cotton 3/1 twill fabric (7.5 oz/yd
), which is typically used for casualpants, does not have a tight enough construction to pass the rain test. However,a heavier cotton fabric such as a 9.0-10.0 oz/yd
canvas does have a very tightconstruction and can perform successfully in the rain test with proper treatment.Another alternative is to use a specialty fabric that has very fine yarns and a verytight weave.
When a drop of liquid on
solid surface does not spread, the drop willassume a shape that appears constant and exhibits an angle , called thecontact angle. The angle
characteristic of the particular liquid/solidinteraction; therefore, the equilibrium contact angle serves as an indicationof wettability of the solid by the liquid. As seen in figure 52, the interfacialforces between the liquid and vapor, liquid and solid and solid and vapor all come into play when determining whether a liquid will spread or not on
smooth solid surface. The equilibrium established between these forcesdetermine the contact angle 0.
Spreading of Liquids